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Table 4 Determinants of IR (HOMA-IR ≥p95a) from univariate logistic regression analyses (children without IR at T0)

From: Longitudinal associations of lifestyle factors and weight status with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in preadolescent children: the large prospective cohort study IDEFICS

  Children of all weight groups Normal weight children only
N % OR 95 % CI N % OR 95 % CI
Sex 3152 (all)     2297 (all)    
 Female 1508 47.8 1.5 1.3–1.9 1078 46.9 1.4 1.1–1.9
 Male 1644 52.2 Ref.   1219 53.1 Ref.  
Age (continuous, unit change from mean) 3152 (all)   1.2 1.1–1.3 2297 (all)   1.1 1.0–1.2
ISCED 3114 (all)     2269 (all)    
 Low (1–2) 215 6.9 2.6 1.9–3.6 135 6.0 2.2 1.4–3.5
 Medium (3–4) 1563 50.2 1.8 1.4–2.3 1121 49.4 1.6 1.2–2.2
 High (5–6) 1336 52.9 Ref.   1013 44.7 Ref.  
BMI (Cole) 3152 (all)        
 Thin 362 11.5 0.5 0.3–0.9     
 Normal weight 2297 72.9 Ref.      
 Overweight 345 11.0 4.1 3.3–5.0     
 Obese 148 4.7 10.8 8.2–14.0     
BMI z-score (Cole) 3152 (all)        
 1st Quartile (≤ −0.49) 813 26.2 0.7 0.5–1.1     
 2nd Quartile (−0.49 - ≤0.19) 802 25.6 Ref.      
 3rd Quartile (0.19 - ≤0.97) 811 23.1 1.2 0.9–1.8     
 4th Quartile (≥ 0.97) 726 25.1 4.9 3.7–6.6     
BMI z-score (Cole) (unit change from mean) 3152 (all)   2.5 2.2–2.8     
Waist z-score (Cole) 3152 (all)        
 1st Quartile (≤ −0.66) 826 26.2 0.8 0.5–1.2     
 2nd Quartile (−0.66 - ≤0.09) 791 25.1 Ref.      
 3rd Quartile (0.09 - ≤0.95) 808 25.6 1.5 1.0–2.1     
 4th Quartile (≥ 0.95) 727 23.1 5.7 4.1–7.7     
Waist z-score (Cole) (unit change from mean) 3152 (all)   2.2 2.0–2.4     
Audio-visual media time 3152 (all)     2297 (all)    
 ≤1 h/day 1062 33.7 Ref.   774 33.7 Ref.  
 1 - ≤2 h/day 1221 38.7 1.4 1.1–1.9 899 39.1 1.4 1.0–2.1
 2 - ≤3 h/day 603 19.1 1.7 1.3–2.3 439 19.1 1.8 1.2–2.6
 >3 h/day 266 8.4 2.1 1.5–2.9 185 8.1 2.3 1.5–3.6
Media in bedroom 3090 (all)     2250 (all)    
 0 media 1902 61.5 Ref.   1429 63.5 Ref.  
 1–2 media 868 28.1 1.8 1.4–2.2 609 27.1 1.8 1.3–2.3
 3 media 320 10.4 2.6 2.0–3.4 212 9.4 2.4 1.7–3.4
Sugar consumption propensity score (N = 3125)c 3152 (all)     2297 (all)    
 1st Quartile (≤ 16.9) 842 26.7 Ref.   625 27.2 Ref.  
 2nd Quartile (16.9 - ≤24.1) 832 26.4 1.0 0.8–1.4 557 24.3 1.0 0.7–1.5
 3rd Quartile (24.1 - ≤32.4) 766 24.3 1.1 0.8–1.4 562 24.5 1.0 0.7–1.5
 4th Quartile (≥ 32.4) 713 22.6 1.2 0.9–1.6 553 24.1 1.4 1.0–1.9
Fat consumption propensity score (N = 3125) c 3152 (all)     2297 (all)    
 1st Quartile (≤ 19.0) 901 28.6 Ref.   595 25.9 Ref.  
 2nd Quartile (19.0 - ≤24.8) 790 25.1 0.8 0.6–1.0 543 23.6 1.1 0.8–1.6
 3rd Quartile (24.8 - ≤31.3) 748 23.7 0.8 0.6–1.0 574 25.0 1.1 0.8–1.6
 4th Quartile (≥ 31.3) 713 22.6 0.9 0.7–1.2 585 25.5 1.1 0.8–1.6
Sleep duration on weekdays (N = 1730) 1730 (all)     1253 (all)    
 Average sleep time <9 h 104 6.0 1.8 1.2–2.7 58 4.6 1.5 0.8–2.8
 Average sleep time ≥9 h 1626 94.0 Ref.   1195 95.4 Ref.  
Time spent in MVPAb 1042 (all)     771 (all)    
 1st Quartile (≤ 27 min./day) 259 24.9 Ref.   203 26.3 Ref.  
 2nd Quartile (27 - ≤38.7 min./day) 256 24.6 0.8 0.5–1.2 193 25.0 0.9 0.5–1.4
 3rd Quartile (38.7 - ≤54.6 min./day) 264 25.3 0.4 0.2–0.7 193 25.0 0.4 0.2–0.9
 4th Quartile (≥ 54.6 min./day) 263 25.2 0.6 0.4–1.0 182 23.6 0.7 0.3–1.0
  1. Figures in bold indicate a significant effect. Confidence bounds of 1.0 are caused by rounding
  2. aAge- and sex-specific 95th percentiles (p95) from Peplies et al. [29]
  3. b MVPA moderate to vigorous physical activity
  4. cPropensity to consume items high in sugar or fat resp., relative to frequency of all items on food frequency questionnaire