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Table 3 Baseline characteristics of (non-) participants

From: Participation in and adherence to physical exercise after completion of primary cancer treatment

  Non-participants (n = 179) Participants (n = 277)
   HI (n = 139) LMI (n = 138)
Demographic
 Age, mean (SD) years 55 (10.6) 54 (10.7) 53 (11.4)
 Gender, n (%) male 26 (15) 29 (21) 26 (19)
 Marital status, n (%) having a partner 150 (84) 112 (81) 120 (87)
 Education, n (%) high 43 (25) 52 (38) 53 (39)
 Employment status at baseline, n (%) yes 91 (51) 85 (61) 82 (59)
 Smoking status at baseline, n (%) yes 27 (15) 9 (7) 8 (6)
 Sport history, n (%) yes 100 (57) 72 (52) 83 (61)
Clinical
 Cancer type, n (%)    
 Breast 120 (67) 92 (66) 89 (65)
 Colon 31 (17) 25 (18) 24 (17)
 Ovarian 6 (3) 8 (6) 4 (3)
 Lymphoma 16 (9) 10 (7) 16 (12)
 Cervix 4 (2) 0 4 (3)
 Testis 2 (1) 4 (3) 1 (1)
Stage of disease, n (%)
 Local 123 (69) 103 (74) 84 (61)
 Advanced 55 (31) 36 (26) 54 (39)
Type of treatment, n (%)
 Surgery 161 (90) 127 (91) 123 (89)
 Radiation therapy 87 (49) 74 (53) 61 (44)
 Immunotherapy 33 (18) 23 (17) 36 (26)
 Hormone therapy 81 (45) 67 (48) 61 (44)
 Comorbidities ≥2, n (%) yes 26 (15) 16 (12) 14 (10)
 BMI in kg/m2, mean (SD) n.a. 27.2 (4.5) 26.6 (4.2)
Psychosocial
 General fatigue (MFI), mean (SD)a 12.3 (4.4) 12.8 (3.8) 12.9 (4.2)
 Global HRQoL (QLQ-C30), mean (SD)b 70.9 (18.2) 71.3 (16.2) 73.1 (16.1)
 Psychological distress (HADS), mean (SD)c 8.2 (6.4) 7.4 (5.7) 7.6 (5.3)
 Attitude, mean (SD) 83.8 (21.2) 85.2 (22.3) 87.3 (18.8)
 Perceived barriers, mean (SD) 23.1 (12.4) 28.6 (12.3) 25.8 (12.0)
 Outcome expectations, mean (SD) 71.8 (17.8) 75.0 (15.7) 76.0 (13.7)
 Self-efficacy, mean (SD) 64.8 (17.9) 59.9 (16.6) 61.1 (16.4)
 Social support, mean (SD) 79.3 (21.1) 81.9 (20.6) 81.0 (20.1)
Physical
 Exercise stage, n (%)d 85 (50) 66 (49) 67 (49)
 Self-reported PA 115.6 (91.3) 96.7 (69.0) 106.2 (83.1)
Environmental
 Travel distance to the exercise program (in kilometres), mean (SD) n.a. 7.3 (6.1) 6.5 (4.8)
Adherence
 High session attendance, n (%) - 106 (76) 93 (67)
 High compliance with resistance exercises, n (%) - 93 (69) 87 (67)
 High compliance with endurance exercises, n (%) - 64 (47) 55 (42)
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, n number, HI high intensity exercise, LMI low-to-moderate intensity exercise, BMI body mass index, n.a. not applicable, PA physical activity
  2. aRange 4-20, higher score means a higher level of self-reported general fatigue; bRange 0-100, higher score means a higher level of self-reported global HRQoL; cRange 0-36, higher means a higher level of anxiety and/or depression; dcurrently exercising