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Table 1 Sample Descriptives based upon ECI tertiles and DINE scores (low, medium and high)

From: The influence of socio-demographic, psychological and knowledge-related variables alongside perceived cooking and food skills abilities in the prediction of diet quality in adults: a nationally representative cross-sectional study

  Overall Sample Mean (SD)/n (%) ECIa DINE Fat (saturated) DINE Fibre
   T1 T2 T3 P trend Low Medium High P trend Low Medium High P trend
   Mean
(SD)/n (%)
Mean
(SD)/n (%)
Mean
(SD)/n (%)
  Mean
(SD)/n (%)
Mean
(SD)/n (%)
Mean
(SD)/n (%)
  Mean
(SD)/n (%)
Mean
(SD)/n (%)
Mean
(SD)/n (%)
 
Age (N = 1049) 39.7 (11.8) 36.7 (11.7) 40.3 (11.8) 41.7 (11.6) *** 39.1 (12.0) 40.5 (11.8) 39.7 (11.7) * 37.0 (11.7) 41.4 (11.8) 40.7 (11.5) ***
 20–39 years (n = 545) 29.9 (5.7) 184 (33.8 %) 210 (38.5 %) 151 (27.7 %) *** 221 (40.6 %) 144 (26.4 %) 180 (33.0 %) * 222 (40.7 %) 179 (32.8 %) 144 (26.4 %) ***
 40–60 years (n = 504) 50.3 (6.4) 110 (21.8 %) 209 (41.5 %) 185 (36.7 %) *** 165 (32.7 %) 170 (33.7 %) 169 (33.5 %) * 132 (26.2 %) 214 (42.5 %) 158 (31.3 %) ***
Gender
 Males 459 (43.8 %) 167 (36.4 %) 175 (38.1 %) 117 (25.5 %) *** 125 (27.2 %) 137 (29.8 %) 197 (42.9 %) *** 161 (35.1 %) 168 (36.6 %) 130 (28.3 %) NS
 Females 590 (56.2 %) 127 (21.5 %) 244 (41.4 %) 219 (37.1 %) *** 261 (44.2 %) 177 (30.0 %) 152 (25.8 %) *** 193 (32.7 %) 225 (38.1 %) 172 (29.2 %) NS
Education
 No qualifications or compulsory level (n = 135) 135 (12.9 %) 51 (37.8 %) 52 (38.5 %) 32 (23.7 %) *** 51 (37.8 %) 33 (24.4 %) 51 (37.8 %) ** 57 (42.2 %) 48 (35.6 %) 30 (22.2 %) NS
 Secondary/further education (e.g., NVQ) (n = 656) 656 (62.5 %) 184 (28.0 %) 276 (42.1 %) 196 (29.9 %) *** 214 (32.6 %) 211 (32.2 %) 231 (35.2 %) ** 223 (34.0 %) 238 (36.3 %) 195 (29.7 %) NS
 University or higher (UG or PG degree) (n = 258) 258 (24.6 %) 59 (22.9 %) 91 (35.3 %) 108 (41.9 %) *** 121 (46.9 %) 70 (27.1 %) 67 (26.0 %) ** 74 (28.7 %) 107 (41.5 %) 77 (29.8 %) NS
Socio-economic grouping
 ABC1 (n = 511) 511 (48.7 %) 125 (24.5 %) 188 (36.8 %) 198 (38.7 %) *** 199 (38.9 %) 168 (32.9 %) 144 (28.2 %) ** 161 (31.5 %) 188 (36.8 %) 162 (31.7 %) NS
 C2DE (n = 538) 538 (51.3 %) 169 (31.4 %) 231 (42.9 %) 138 (25.7 %) *** 187 (34.8 %) 146 (27.1 %) 205 (38.1 %) ** 193 (35.9 %) 205 (38.1 %) 140 (26.0 %) NS
BMI (n = 760) 24.4 (4.2) 24.5 (4.2) 24.5 (4.3) 24.3 (4.1) NS 24.2 (3.9) 24.8 (4.4) 24.4 (4.3) NS 24.5 (4.0) 24.4 (4.3) 24.4 (4.3) NS
Nutrition knowledge (n = 1049) 7.2 (2.2) 6.5 (2.4) 7.5 (2.0) 7.5 (2.2) *** 7.7 (2.0) 7.6 (2.1) 6.4 (2.3) *** 7.0 (2.4) 7.2 (2.0) 7.4 (2.2) NS
Food and health consciousness (n = 1049) 3.8 (0.9) 3.5 (1.0) 3.8 (0.8) 4.1 (0.7) *** 3.9 (0.8) 3.9 (0.8) 3.6 (0.9) *** 3.6 (0.9) 3.8 (0.8) 4.0 (0.8) ***
Cooking identity (n = 1049) 24.5 (5.4) 21.7 (6.0) 24.9 (4.9) 26.3 (4.4) *** 24.7 (5.3) 24.8 (5.4) 23.9 (5.5) * 23.3 (6.1) 24.7 (5.3) 25.5 (4.3) ***
Food neophilia (n = 1048) 10.5 (2.7) 9.5 (2.7) 10.6 (2.5) 11.2 (2.5) *** 10.7 (2.6) 10.8 (2.7) 9.9 (2.6) *** 10.3 (2.9) 10.4 (2.6) 10.7 (2.3) NS
Meal prep. frequency (n = 1049) 1.7 (1.1) 1.3 (1.0) 1.7 (1.1) 1.9 (1.2) *** 1.6 (1.2) 1.7 (1.1) 1.7 (1.2) NS 1.5 (1.2) 1.7 (1.1) 1.8 (1.1) **
Cooking skills ability (n = 1049) 47.8 (29.3) 37.1 (29.0) 50.0 (28.9) 54.5 (27.7) *** 53.0 (27.9) 52.7 (31.4) 37.6 (26.1) *** 46.6 (33.6) 48.4 (27.0) 48.4 (26.8) NS
Food skills ability (n = 1049) 45.8 (38.6) 34.4 (36.1) 47.7 (39.4) 53.5 (37.7) *** 47.0 (36.1) 55.3 (44.3) 36.0 (33.3) *** 46.5 (45.2) 44.5 (35.4) 46.7 (34.3) NS
ECI score (n = 1049) 12.2 (2.9) 8.8 (1.4) 11.8 (0.8) 15.7 (1.5) *** 13.1 (3.0) 12.1 (2.7) 11.4 (2.8) *** 10.8 (2.8) 12.6 (2.7) 13/4 (2.7) ***
DINE Fat (n = 1049) 35.5 (13.0) 38.8 (13.3) 35.6 (12.0) 32.6 (13.4) *** 22.8 (5.0) 34.8 (3.0) 50.2 (9.0) NS 34.1 (12.7) 35.2 (12.5) 37.6 (13.8) NS
DINE Fibre (n = 1049) 34.6 (11.3) 29.3 (10.8) 34.4 (10.1) 39.5 (10.9) *** 33.1 (10.4) 35.2 (12.2) 35.8 (11.1) NS 22.9 (5.1) 34.8 (3.1) 48.1 (7.2) NS
  1. P for trend: Chi square or ANOVA; NS: Non-significant; BMI; body mass index; *** Group difference is significant at the 0.001 level (2-tailed); ** Group difference is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed); * Group difference is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)
  2. aN.B. Higher ECI score reflects healthier choices; Higher DINE Fat score reflects higher fat intake; Higher DINE Fibre score reflects higher fibre intake