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Table 1 Description of included studies (arranged alphabetically)

From: Sedentary behaviours during pregnancy: a systematic review

Author Country Number of participants Study design Criteria for inclusion Assessment method Definition of sedentary Quality
Both, et al. (2010) [31] UK 11759 Cohort Pregnant women due to deliver between April 1st 1991 and December 31st 1992. Self-reported questionnaire. Non-objective. Who declared being mostly sitting. Intermediate
Chasan-Taber, et al. (2014) [40] USA 1276 Cohort Women of Puerto Rican or Dominican Republic heritage. Modified version of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ). Non-objective. Activities expending <1.5 METs. Intermediate
Chasan-Taber, et al. (2015) [34] USA 1240 Cohort Women of Puerto Rico or Dominican Republic heritage. PPAQ. Non-objective. The sum of the MET-h/day spent watching TV/videos or sitting/standing at home, work, or during transportation. Intermediate
Di Fabio, et al. (2015) [8] USA 46 Cohort Healthy pregnant women, including women between 18 and 45 years of age and singleton pregnancy. - 7 day record diary. - Non-objective. Activities expending ≤1.5 METs (independent of nighttime sleep). Intermediate
- SenseWear® Mini armband accelerometer. - Objective.
- ActivPAL™ Multi-sensor accelerometer. - Non-objective.
Evenson, et al. (2010) [37] USA 1280 Cohort Pregnant women ≥16 years of age. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Non-objective. Two questions on TV watching and computer usage outside of work hours were used as SB indicators. Women were also asked if they were ‘mostly sitting’ during their usual daily activities. Poor
Evenson, et al. (2011) [11] USA 359 Cross-sectional Pregnant women ≥16 years. ActiGraph accelerometer. Objective. Activities expending <100 counts per minute. Intermediate
Gollenberg, et al. (2010) [36] USA 1006 Cohort Latina ethnicity, age 16–40 years old, singleton pregnancy, and no prior participation in the study. Modified version of the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS). Non-objective. Hours spent TV watching per day and frequency of sitting at work. Intermediate
Gradmark, et al. (2011) [47] Sweden 101 Cross-sectional Normal weight and overweight women without diabetes were studied. Actiheart monitor. Objective. Epochs with valid heart rate data and zero accelerometry counts/min. Intermediate
Hawkins, et al. (2014 Im.) [48] USA 260 Randomized controlled trial Women in their first trimester of pregnancy, between 16 and 40 years old, and at high risk for GDM. Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ). Non-objective. The amount of time spent watching TV or videos, or sitting or standing at home, work, or during transportation. Good
Hawkins, et al. (2014 PA) [10] USA 294 Cross-sectional Women in the 2003–2006 NHANES study cycles who self-reported currently being pregnant, were 16 year or older, and who had available data on C reactive protein, physical activity, and SB. ActiGraph accelerometer. Objective. Activities expending <100 counts per minute. Intermediate
Hayes, et al. (2014) [49] UK 183 Randomized controlled trial All obese (BMI ≥ 30 K/m2) pregnant women. - Acti-Graph accelerometer. - Objective. - Accelerometry: any minute with ≤100 counts/min. Good
- Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ). - Non-objective. - RPAQ, minutes spent on activities <1.5 MET.
Hegaard, et al. (2010) [32] Denmark 4558 Cohort Danish-speaking pregnant women. Self-reported questionnaires. Non-objective. Those who chose “mostly sitting” to describe most correctly her level of leisuretime activity. Intermediate
Hegaard, et al. (2011) [35] Denmark 4718 Cohort Age ≥ 18 years, Danish speaking, singleton pregnancy, and intended spontaneous vaginal delivery. Self-administered questionnaire. Non-objective. Those who answered: “Reading, watching television, or pursuing some other sedentary occupation”, as the most appropriate description of her activities. Intermediate
Hjorth, et al. (2012) [9] Ethiopia 304 Cross-sectional All pregnant women who attended routine visits at the antenatal care clinic. - Actiheart (heart rate and movement device). - Objective. Energy expenditure ≤1.5 METs. Intermediate
- 24 h physical activity recall. - Non-objective.
Jiang, et al. (2012) [30] China 862 Cohort Pregnant women over 20 years old in a singleton pregnancy, and had no disease including gestational diabetes (GD), hypertension, heart disease, chronic renal disease, and other diseases restricting physical activity. Pedometer. Objective. Less than 5000 steps per day. Intermediate
Kamareswaran, et al. (2013) [41] UK 10 Cohort Type 1 diabetes, current insulin pump therapy, and a viable singleton pregnancy. Actiheart (heart rate and movement device). Objective. Activities expending ≤1 MET. Intermediate
Li & Zhao (2007) [46] China 405 Cross-sectional Pregnant women working in a sewing factory. Self-reported questionnaire. Non-Objective. According to the job, women were assigned to the study group (persistent sedentary) or control group. Poor
Loprinzi, et al. (2013) [44] USA 206 Cross-sectional All women who answered the 2003–2006 National Health and Examination Survey. ActiGraph accelerometer. Objective. Activity counts between 0 and 99 counts/min. Intermediate
Lynch, et al. (2012) [43] USA 1355 Cohort Women from the ambulatory obstetric practices at ≤20 weeks of gestation. PPAQ. Non-objective. The amount of time spent watching TV or videos, or sitting or standing at home, work, or during transportation. Intermediate
Oken, et al. (2006) [29] USA 1581 Cohort Women attending initial prenatal visit, who delivered live infants. Modified version of the leisure time activity section of the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE). Non-objective. Hours per week spent watching TV or videos. Intermediate
Padmapriya, et al. (2015) [42] Singapore 1171 Cohort Pregnant women aged 18 years and above attending first trimester antenatal dating ultrasound scan clinics. Interview questionnaire. Non-objective. Hours spent on sitting plus hours spent on watching TV per day. Intermediate
Reid, et al. (2014) [39] Northern Ireland 100 Cohort Healthy women, ≥16 years old, with singleton pregnancies, between 26 and 37 week gestation. Body-media SenseWear Pro3 armband. Objective. Activities expending ≤1 MET. Intermediate
Rhodes, et al. (2014) [33] Canada 157 Cohort The cohorts were couples without children, first-time parents during the first year of their parenthood experience, and second time parents during the first year of this parenting experience between the ages of 25 and 40 years of age. GT1M Activity Monitor (accelerometer and stepcounter). Objective. Activities expending 0–100 average acceleration counts/min. Intermediate
Ruifrok, et al. (2014) [12] Netherlands 111 Cohort Healthy pregnant women. Trial 1: nulliparous pregnant women without BMI restrictions, able to read, write and speak Dutch, and within their first 14 weeks of pregnancy; Trial 2: overweight and obese pregnant women at risk for gestational diabetes. ActiTrainer accelerometer (Acti-Graph). Objective. Activities expending <100 counts/min. Intermediate
Van Raaij, et al. (1990) [38] Netherlands 18 Cohort Healthy women judged by medical histories, blood pressure, hemoglobin concentration, and urine analysis. - Open-circuit indirect calorimetry. - Objective. Lying, sitting quietly or very light sitting activity, or light-to-moderate sitting activity. Intermediate
- Physical activity diaries. - Non-objective.
Watts, et al. (2013) [45] Australia 81 Cross-sectional Pregnant women regardless of their pregnancy trimester. The Australian Women’s Activity Survey (AWAS). Non-objective. Frequency and duration of sitting behavior. Poor