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Table 3 Results from meta-regression analysis of 32 long term outcome reports of PA and diet interventions

From: Effective behaviour change techniques for physical activity and healthy eating in overweight and obese adults; systematic review and meta-regression analyses

  Simple meta-regressiona Multiple meta-regressionb
Study characteristics b 95% CI P value Adj. R2 % b 95% CI P value
BCT 1.1 Goal setting behaviourc 0.228 (0.056, 0.400) 0.011 38.5 0.175 0.043, 0.307 0.011
BCT 1.2 Problem solvingc 0.161 (−0.005, 0.327) 0.057 25.1    
BCT 1.3 Goal setting outcomec 0.256 (0.095, 0.416) 0.003 53.2    
BCT 1.5 Review behaviour goalsc −0.319 (−0.678, 0.040) 0.078 19.8    
BCT 2.3 Self-monitoring of behaviourc 0.184 (0.009, 0.360) 0.040 30.8    
BCT 2.7 Feedback on outcome of behaviourc 0.249 (0.085, 0.412) 0.004 43.8 0.145 0.021, 0.269 0.024
BCT 3.1 Social support (unspecified)c 0.192 (−0.011, 0.394) 0.063 21.6    
BCT 8.7 Graded tasksc 0.203 (0.043, 0.363) 0.014 37.1    
BCT 12.5 Adding objects to the environmentc 0.182 (0.010, 0.354) 0.039 12.7    
Method basedd
  MI/SDT 0.000 reference      
  ACT/CT/HAES/Mindful/other −0.303 (−0.500, −0.105) 0.004     
  Unclear −0.199 (−0.372, −0.026) 0.026 57.5 −0.170 −0.294, −0.045g 0.009
Number of BCTs unique to the intervention groupe 0.028 (0.012, 0.044) 0.001 54.3    
Total number of BCTs in intervention + control groupf 0.030 (0.014, 0.046) 0.001 61.3    
Adj. R2 %      100.0   
  1. Abbreviations and symbols: BCT Behaviour change technique, PA physical activity, ß estimated meta-regression coefficient, CI confidence interval, Adj. R 2 adjusted proportion of between study variance explained by predictors
  2. aSimple linear meta-regression of pooled estimates of 17 physical activity and 15 diet intervention’s outcome reports. Only predictors with significant or borderline significant effects are reported; bMultiple linear meta-regression: results after stepwise backwards elimination from model with all significant predictors included. Only effects with p < 0.05 are retained in the model; cThe difference of BCTs between intervention and control group contains this BCT, compared to studies not having this difference. dMethod-based interventions comparing MI or SDT based interventions with Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), Cognitive therapy (CT), Health-at-every-size (HAES) approach, Mindful based intervention or other methods, versus no method mentioned; eThe number of unique BCTs in the intervention groups as compared with the control group; fThe total number of BCTs in intervention and control group; gThe variable is dichotomized in the multiple meta-regression analysis to MI/SDT versus all others