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Table 2 Sleep quality and sleep efficiency of grade 5 children by gender, highest level of parental education, school region, household income, weight status and total daily exposure to devices, Alberta, 2012

From: The use of entertainment and communication technologies before sleep could affect sleep and weight status: a population-based study among children

Variables Frequency (%) Good sleep quality (%) p-value Very good sleep efficiency (%) p-value
Gender
 Girls 1235 (53.2) 32.5 0.08 94.2 0.96
 Boys 1071 (46.8) 37.1   94.2  
Highest level of parental education
 No school/Elementary school 63 (3.0) 30.3 <0.001 92.2 0.18
 Secondary/college 1391 (59.0) 32.6   94.4  
 University 792 (38.0) 39.8   95.2  
Region of elementary school
 Metropolitan 612 (49.0) 36.5 0.30 94.7 0.63
 City 781 (16.3) 32.9   94.1  
 Rural/town 941 (34.7) 33.7   93.5  
Household income
 < $50,000 (Low) 385 (19.7) 22.9 <0.001 94.0 0.60
 $50,001 - $100,000 (Middle) 614 (26.6) 32.7   94.4  
 > $100,000 (High) 684 (28.2) 35.1   94.2  
 Don’t know/Prefer not to answer* 575 (25.5) 38.4   94.7  
Weight category**
 Thinness grade 3 20 (0.9) 21.5 ***0.10 100.0 ***0.53
 Thinness grade 2 49 (2.1) 38.0   89.6  
 Thinness grade 1 233 (10.1) 35.9   94.5  
 Normal 1503 (65.0) 36.2   94.9  
 Overweight 399 (17.3) 29.8   92.8  
 Obese 48 (2.1) 22.5   94.3  
 Morbid Obese 3 (0.1) 26.6   100.0  
Total daily exposure to devices (hours)
 < 2 438 (18.8) 37.4 0.07 96.4 0.06
 2.0 1045 (44.1) 36.8   94.5  
 3.5 48 (2.2) 33.9   89.5  
 4.0 264 (12.1) 32.7   93.8  
 5.0 201 (9.5) 28.4   92.5  
 5.5 318 (13.3) 30.4   92.5  
  1. *Household income category “Don’t know/Prefer not to answer” excluded from p trend calculations
  2. **Missing weight category excluded
  3. ***p values generated using an aggregate of ‘thinness grade 1’, thinness grade 2′ and thinness grade 3′ and ‘obese and morbid obese’ categories
  4. p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant