Skip to main content

Table 5 Associations of environmental attributes/correlates with older adults’ physical activity by physical activity and environmental measures (objective and perceived)

From: Built environmental correlates of older adults’ total physical activity and walking: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Environmental attribute Total PA1 Total walking only
P Ø N pa Da P Ø N pa Da
Walkability 12.33 6.67 0 <.001 P 4.37 3.63 0 .001 P
Objective 9.05 6.95 0 <.001 P - - - - -
Perceived 3 0 0 .003 P - - - - -
Residential density/urbanisation 11.53 33.5 12.97 .394 Ø 8 14.5 3.5 .036 P
Objective 10 18.50 11.50 .388 Ø 7 6.50 3.50 .032 P
Perceived 1.53 15 1.47 .855 Ø 1 8 0 .652 Ø
Street connectivity 8.71 26.06 2.14 .094 Ø 5.71 13.20 2 .185 Ø
Objective 2.80 14.20 1 .366 Ø 1.80 9.20 1 .543 Ø
Perceived 6 11.86 1.14 .076 Ø 4 4 1 .210 Ø
Access to/availability of destinations & services
 Overall access to destinations & services 12.55 38.15 0.5 <.001 P 6.93 25.57 0.5 .009 P
Objective 3.76 12.24 0 .003 P 3.43 9.57 0 .004 P
Perceived 8.79 25.91 0.50 .008 P 3.50 16 0.50 .277 Ø
Land-use mix—destination diversity 5.68 19.32 2 .148 Ø 1 8 2 .439 Ø
Objective 1.17 10.83 2 .504 Ø - - - - -
Perceived 4.51 8.49 0 .002 P - - - - -
Shops/commercial 9.96 57.21 0 .006 P 8.58 23.42 0 .001 P
Objective 8.25 34.75 0 .006 P 7.08 12.92 0 <.001 P
Perceived 1.71 21.29 0 .475 Ø 1.50 10.50 0 .422 Ø
Food outlets 0.72 21.28 1 .932 Ø 0.72 6.28 1 .873 Ø
Objective 0.72 14.28 0 .685 Ø - - - - -
Perceived 0 7 1 .521 Ø - - - - -
Education 0.31 11.69 0 .765 Ø 0.14 2.85 0 .826 Ø
Objective 0.31 8.69 0 .727 Ø - - - - -
Perceived 0 3 0 1.00 Ø - - - - -
Health & aged care 4.61 26.39 1 .275 Ø 3.61 7.39 1 .191 Ø
Objective 4 24 1 .382 Ø - - - - -
Perceived 0.61 2.39 0 .290 Ø - - - - -
Public transport 7.5 25.6 1 .013 P 5.5 11.5 1 .011 P
Objective 6.50 12.50 0 .004 P 5.50 5.50 0 <.001 P
Perceived 1 13 1 .918 Ø 0 6 1 .501 Ø
Parks/public open space 11.29 47.54 0.17 .002 P 6.05 23.78 0.17 .014 P
Objective 4.42 28.58 0 .083 Ø 4.42 13.58 0 .035 P
Perceived 6.87 18.96 0.17 .003 P 1.63 10.20 0.17 .201 Ø
Recreational facilities 13.34 39.66 0 <.001 P 3.07 15.93 0 .135 Ø
Objective 4.58 21.42 0 .092 Ø 0.29 6.71 0 .848 Ø
Perceived 8.76 18.24 0 <.001 P 2.78 9.22 0 .050 P
Social recreational facilities 4.15 25.95 0 .105 Ø 1.5 10.5 0 .413 Ø
Objective 3.50 14.50 0 .094 Ø 1.50 4.50 0 .291 Ø
Perceived 0.65 11.45 0 .687 Ø 0 6 0 1.00 Ø
Infrastructure & streetscape
 Walk-friendly infrastructure 9 21.49 1.51 .009 P 5 15 0 .042 P
Objective 5 9 0 .028 P 3 7 0 .103 Ø
Perceived 4 12.49 1.51 .137 Ø 2 8 0 .222 Ø
 No physical barriers (e.g., hills) 5 20.40 2.61 .208 Ø 2 14.40 0.61 .384 Ø
Objective 5 8.40 1.60 .048 P 2 4.40 0.60 .227 Ø
Perceived 0 12 1 .629 Ø 0 10 0 1.00 Ø
 Greenery & aesthetically pleasing scenery 13.01 45.49 0.5 .004 P 10.51 19.49 0 .002 P
Objective 3 18 0 .252 Ø 3 9 0 .199 Ø
Perceived 10.01 27.49 0.50 .003 P 7.51 10.49 0 <.001 P
Safety
 Traffic/pedestrian safety 7 47 3 .463 Ø 5 25 3 .705 Ø
Objective 1 13 3 .407 Ø 0 11 3 .150 Ø
Perceived 6 34 0 .126 Ø 5 14 0 .043 P
 Crime/personal safety 20.63 50.58 3.99 <.001 P 10.49 28.01 2.5 .027 P
Objective 4 5.50 2.50 .510 Ø 3 5 2 .627 Ø
Perceived 16.52 44.98 1.50 <.001 P 7.49 23.01 0.50 .012 P
  1. Notes: 1Objective and self-report total PA (including total walking) combined. P = positive association; Ø = nil association; N = negative association; p = p-value; D = direction of association supported by the data; subscript “a” = fully adjusted (for sample size and article quality). In bold font: evidence of a difference between environmental measures of an association between a sufficiently studied exposure and PA variable (i.e., ≥3 articles’ reported findings on specific combinations of environmental exposure and physical activity variables)