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Table 3 Characteristics (mean ± SD) of the participants by self-reported eating rate-category, within the total population and in men and women separately

From: Self-reported eating rate is associated with weight status in a Dutch population: a validation study and a cross-sectional study

  Self-reported eating rate P ANOVA P linear trend
  Slow Average Fast
  n mean SD n mean SD n mean SD
Total
 Age (yrs.) 176 53.0 13.1 723 55.1 11.0 574 54.6 12.1 0.11 .42
 BMI (kg/m2) 176 24.8 4.1 723 25.5 4.0 574 26.6 3.9 <0.001 <0.001
 Waist circumference (cm) 175 88.2 13.1 721 90.4 12.3 572 93.6 12.2 <0.001 <0.001
 Body fat percentage (%) 145 29.9 9.0 647 30.2 8.6 504 28.6 8.8 0.01 0.01
 Energy intake (MJ/day) 158 8.4 2.3 662 8.5 2.4 525 8.9 2.7 <0.01 <0.01
 Energy intake (MJ/day) a 75 9.9 1.8 300 10.2 2.0 209 11.3 2.4 <0.001 <0.001
 Emotional eating 176 2.13 0.69 723 2.06 0.71 574 2.17 0.73 0.02 0.09
 Restrained eating 176 2.86 0.79 723 3.01 0.72 574 3.03 0.69 0.03 0.03
 External eating 176 2.61 0.48 723 2.67 0.42 574 2.78 0.43 <0.001 <0.001
 Moderate-to-vigorous activity (h/day) 164 35.4 19.5 663 33.8 17.0 535 35.4 18.0 0.24 0.53
 Sedentary activity (h/day) 164 37.6 35.0 663 35.5 29.0 534 37.4 24.4 0.45 0.68
Men
 Age (yrs.) 59 57.9 10.7 315 58.2 10.0 367 56.7 11.1 0.16 0.10
 BMI (kg/m2) 59 25.7 3.9 315 26.3 3.4 367 26.7 3.5 0.09 0.03
 Waist circumference (cm) 58 96.1 10.9 314 97.0 10.7 365 96.9 10.7 0.82 0.74
 Body fat percentage (%) 52 23.8 6.9 294 24.9 6.8 337 24.7 6.4 0.56 0.71
 Energy intake (MJ/day) 54 10.0 2.4 295 9.3 2.5 342 9.5 2.8 0.25 0.89
 Energy intake (MJ/day) a 27 11.5 1.6 125 11.4 2.0 136 12.0 2.2 0.04 0.03
 Emotional eating 59 2.01 0.68 315 1.85 0.61 367 2.01 0.67 <0.01 0.053
 Restrained eating 59 2.65 0.79 315 2.84 0.75 367 2.92 0.69 0.02 <0.01
 External eating 59 2.62 0.48 315 2.64 0.42 367 2.76 0.43 0.001 <0.001
 Moderate-to-vigorous activity (h/day) 57 31.5 19.0 298 32.6 17.8 341 35.4 18.9 0.10 0.04
 Sedentary activity (h/day) 57 37.6 19.4 298 35.0 18.8 341 37.8 22.9 0.23 0.30
Women
 Age (yrs.) 117 50.6 13.5 408 52.7 11.1 207 50.8 12.9 0.09 0.75
 BMI (kg/m2) 117 24.4 4.2 408 25.0 4.3 207 26.4 4.6 <0.001 <0.001
 Waist circumference (cm) 117 84.2 12.4 407 85.3 10.9 207 87.6 12.3 0.02 <0.01
 Body fat percentage (%) 93 33.2 8.3 353 34.6 7.4 167 36.5 7.7 <0.01 <0.001
 Energy intake (MJ/day) 104 7.6 1.8 367 7.8 2.0 183 7.8 2.3 0.58 0.39
 Energy intake (MJ/day) a 48 9.0 1.1 175 9.4 1.5 73 9.8 1.9 0.02 <0.01
 Emotional eating 117 2.19 0.69 408 2.22 0.73 207 2.45 0.74 0.001 <0.001
 Restrained eating 117 2.97 0.77 408 3.4 0.66 207 3.21 0.65 <0.01 <0.001
 External eating 117 2.60 0.48 408 2.69 0.43 207 2.82 0.44 <0.001 <0.001
 Moderate-to-vigorous activity (h/day) 107 37.5 19.5 365 34.7 16.4 194 35.3 16.4 0.31 0.41
 Sedentary activity (h/day) 107 37.7 41.1 365 35.9 35.2 193 36.6 27.0 0.90 0.87
  1. aSuspected under reporters (i.e., reported energy intake/calculated basal metabolic rate < 1.35) excluded