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Table 2 Quality assessment of studies included in review

From: Systematic literature review of built environment effects on physical activity and active transport – an update and new findings on health equity

Author; year Selection bias Study design Confounders Blinding Data collection Withdrawals Global score
Beenackers; 2012 Weak Moderate Strong Moderate Weak Weak Weak
Boarnet; 2005 Weak Moderate Weak Moderate Moderate N/A Weak
Brown; 2008 Weak Moderate Strong Moderate Strong Weak Weak
Clark; 2014 Weak Moderate Weak Moderate Strong N/A Weak
Cohen; 2012 Weak Moderate Moderate Moderate Strong N/A Moderate
Cohen; 2014 Weak Moderate Weak Moderate Strong N/A Weak
Cohen; 2015 Weak Moderate Weak Moderate Strong N/A Weak
D’Haese; 2015 Moderate Moderate Strong Weak Strong Moderate Moderate
Dill; 2014 Weak Moderate Strong Moderate Strong Moderate Moderate
Fitzhugh; 2010 Weak Moderate Weak Moderate Weak N/A Weak
Giles-Corti; 2013 Weak Moderate Strong Moderate Weak Moderate Weak
Goodman; 2014 Weak Moderate Strong Moderate Strong Weak Weak
Gustat; 2012 Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Weak N/A Moderate
Harduar-Morano; 2008 Strong Weak Weak Weak Weak N/A Weak
Knuiman; 2014 Weak Moderate Strong Moderate Weak Weak Weak
Lott; 1979 Weak Moderate Weak Moderate Weak N/A Weak
McDonald; 2013 Moderate Moderate Strong Moderate Moderate N/A Strong
Morrison; 2004 Weak Weak Weak Moderate Weak Moderate Weak
Parker; 2011 Weak Moderate Weak Moderate Weak N/A Weak
Parker; 2013 Weak Moderate Weak Moderate Weak N/A Weak
Quigg; 2011 Weak Moderate Strong Moderate Strong Strong Moderate
Ranchod; 2013 Weak Moderate Moderate Moderate Strong Strong Moderate
Roemmich; 2014 Weak Moderate Weak Moderate Strong N/A Weak
Shu; 2014 Weak Moderate Weak Moderate Weak N/A Weak
Tester; 2009 Weak Moderate Weak Moderate Strong N/A Weak
Veitch; 2012 Weak Moderate Weak Moderate Strong N/A Weak
West; 2011 Weak Moderate Weak Moderate Weak Weak Weak
West; 2015 Weak Moderate Moderate Moderate Weak Moderate Weak