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Table 3 Summary of the results on the importance of potential determinants and the strength of the evidence

From: Socio-cultural determinants of physical activity across the life course: a ‘Determinants of Diet and Physical Activity’ (DEDIPAC) umbrella systematic literature review

  Children (age range or mean age < 12 years) Adolescents (age range or mean age ≥ 12 to ≤18 years) Children and adolescents (age range or mean age ≤ 18 years) Adults (age range or mean age > 18 years)
potential determinant evidence for an association with PA
MICRO-ENVIRONMENT     
A Home/Household     
1. Family composition     
 - Marital status (living with partner, yes vs. no) -. Pe [31, 32, 35, 48] -, Ls [35] 0, Ls [36, 45] 0, Lnc [33] [41]
 - Having siblings (number or yes vs. no) 0, Lnc [31, 32]    
 - Having dogs (yes vs. no) -, Lnc [32, 35]    
 - Number of children in household (high vs. low; yes vs. no) - -, Lnc [35] - -, Lnc [35]   [41, 44]
 - Family demands (yes vs. no)     [28, 41, 44]
2. Significant others’ health status (impaired vs. not impaired)     
 - Parental BMI/waist circumference -, Ls [31, 32]    
 - Maternal depression ++, Lsa [40]    
3. Supportive behaviour from significant others (yes vs. no)     
 - Encouragement from significant others 0, Ls [31,32,33, 35, 37, 38, 40, 46, 48] 0, Lnc [31, 33, 35, 43, 48] +, Peb [29, 36, 39, 42, 50] 0, Lnc [49] [28, 41, 44]
 - Having a companion for PA (yes vs. no) 0, Lnc [31,32,33] -, Ls [33, 47] +, Peb [29, 39, 50] 0, Lnc [49]
 - Parental modeling -, Pe [31, 32]   ++, Lncb [42]  
 - Parental watching (presence, observation) -, Lnc [33, 46]   0, Lnc [29, 50]  
4. Social norms (yes vs. no)     
 - Awareness of PA 0, Ls [31,32,33, 35, 40] 0, Lnc [31, 33, 35] - -, Lnc [29, 50]  
 - Physician advices     [44]
 - Parental concern about the environment ++, Lnca [40]    
 - Familial interaction and social influences 0, Lnc [32, 37, 46] 0, Ls [48]   
5. Significant others’ PA (high vs. low) 0, Lnc [31,32,33, 35, 37, 38, 40, 46,47,48] 0, Lnc [31, 33, 35, 47, 48] 0, Ls [36, 39, 50] [44]
6. Participation in organized sports (yes vs. no) 0, Ls [31, 32, 35, 37, 46]    [44]
7. Involvement of social contact (yes vs. no) ++, Lncb [32, 37] - -, Ls [31]   0, Lnc [49] [41]
B Educational Institutions     
1. Supportive behaviour at school (yes vs. no)     
 - Encouragement at school - -, Lnc [35] 0, Ls [35]   
 - Teacher management (organization of activities) - -, Lnc [43]    
 - Teacher watching (presence, observation) 0, Lnc [43, 46]    
2. Teacher specific educational level (yes vs. no) ++, Lncb [35]    
3. PA level at school (teacher PA, high vs. low) - -, Lnc [35] -, Lnc [35]   
C Neighbourhood     
 1. Seeing people exercise (yes vs. no)   - -, Lnc [35]   0, Lnc [30, 49] [41]
 2. Society composition (young society, yes vs. no) ++, Lncb [32] - -, Lnc [35]   
 3. Social inclusion and acculturation (yes vs. no) 0, Lnc [32, 35] 0, Ls [35]   
 4. Neighbourhood satisfaction (yes vs. no) ++, Lncb [35] - -, Lnc [35]   -, Lnc [49]
MACRO-ENVIRONMENT     
D City/Municipality/Region/Country     
 1. Cultural climate     [28, 44]
 2. Religion     [28, 41]
  1. BMI Body Mass Index, PA Physical Activity, Ce Convincing evidence, Pe Probable evidence, Ls Limited, suggestive evidence, Lnc Limited, non-conclusive evidence
  2. aNegative association
  3. bPositive association
  4. Italics: qualitative studies eligible results are not included in this grading of the evidence
  5. Bold: determinants with probable evidence discussed in manuscript