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Table 4 Maternal weight gain (kg) during pregnancy in the exercise and control groups, PAMELA study

From: A randomized controlled trial of exercise during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes: results from the PAMELA study

Intention-to-treat analysis Intervention (n = 155)d Control (n = 320)e   
  mean (SD) p MD (95%CI)
Gestational body weight gain (kg)a 7.8 ± 3.5 8.4 ± 3.5 0.10 0.6 (−0.1;1.2)
  n = 205 n = 407   
Final gestational weight gain(kg)b 12.4 ± 5.7 12.9 ± 6.5 0.43 0.4 (−0.6; 0.8)
  n = 176 n = 351   
  n (%)   OR (95%CI)
IOM recommendations according pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2)c    0.79  
 Below IOM recommendations 54 (30.7) 98 (27.9)   1.2 (0.7; 1.9)
 Within IOM recommendations 55 (31.3) 117 (33.3)  
 Exceeded IOM recommendations 67 (38.0) 136 (38.8)   1.1 (0.7;1.6)
Per protocol analysis (> = 70% exercise sessions) n = 84 n = 320   
  mean (SD)   MD (95%CI)
Gestational body weight gain (kg)a 7.6 ± 3.8 8.4 ± 3.5 0.10 0.7 (0.1;1.6)
  n = 85 n = 407 0.84  
Final gestational weight gain (kg)b 12.7 ± 5.7 12.9 ± 6.5   0.2 (−1.3; 1.7)
  n = 74 n = 351   
  n (%)   OR (95% CI)
IOM recommendations according pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) c    0.71  
 Below IOM recommendations 22 (29.7) 98 (27.9)   1.3 (0.7; 2.4)
 Within IOM recommendations 21 (28.4) 117 (33.3)  
 Exceeded IOM recommendations 31 (41.9) 136 (38.8)   1.3 (0.7; 2.3)
Sensitivity analysis (100% of exercise sessions) c n = 23 n = 320   
  mean (SD)   MD (95%CI)
Gestational body weight gain (kg) a 7.6 ± 3.3 8.4 ± 3.5 0.31 0.8 (0.7; 2.2)
  n = 23 n = 407   
Final gestational weight gain (kg)b 11.7 ± 6.8 12.9 ± 6.5 0.42 1.1 (−1.6; 3.9)
  n = 21 n = 351   
  n (%)   OR (95%CI)
IOM recommendations according pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) c    0.13  
 Below IOM recommendations 10 (47.6) 98 (27.9)   3.0 (0.9; 9.8)
 Within IOM recommendations 4 (19.1) 117 (33.3)  
 Exceeded IOM recommendations 7 (38.8) 136 (33.3)   1.5 (0.4; 5.3)
  1. aDifference between weight gain measured at baseline (16-20 weeks) and weight measured at the last visit to the clinic (32-36 weeks)
  2. bTotal gestational weight gain measured by self-reported and gathered at the hospital up to 48 h after delivery. cInstitute of Medicine guidelines for prenatal weight gain c At least 48 sessions of the total exercise program
  3. d58 women in the intervention group and e106 women in the control group did not attend the last visit at the clinic (32-36 weeks)
  4. p > .05, BMI body mass index, OR odds ratio, MD, mean difference