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Table 2 Frequencies of reported behaviors and outcomes by food security status among college freshmen across time points

From: Hungry to learn: the prevalence and effects of food insecurity on health behaviors and outcomes over time among a diverse sample of university freshmen

   Time 1, n(%) Time 2, n(%) Time 3, n(%) Time 4, n(%)
Variable   FSa FIa FSa FIa FSa FIa FSa FIa
Weight status          
 Overweight/obese Yes 242 (30) 108 (35) 108 (36) 67 (42) 89 (35) 42 (35) 73 (34) 50 (42)
Eating behaviors          
 Breakfast consumptionT1,T2,T4 ≥4 times /week 510 (63) 148 (46) 196 (55) 70 (36) 187 (64) 69 (51) 138 (53) 49 (35)
 Evening meal consumptionT1,T2,T3, T4 7 times /week 709 (88) 236 (74) 299 (84) 137 (71) 257 (88) 105 (78) 219 (85) 92 (66)
 Fast food consumption ≥2 times /week 209 (26) 100 (31) 59 (16) 45 (23) 68 (23) 40 (30) 56 (22) 42 (30)
 Fruit/vegetable consumptionT1 ≥4 servings /day 349 (43) 109 (34) 142 (40) 57 (29) 131 (45) 60 (44) 117 (45) 49 (35)
 DSQb – fruits and vegetables > 2 cups/day 473 (58) 180 (56) 184 (52) 79 (42) 167 (58) 69 (51) 124 (48) 57 (41)
 DSQb - dairy > 1.5 cups/day 488 (60) 188 (59) 186 (52) 89 (47) 117 (40) 58 (43) 115 (45) 58 (42)
 DSQb – added sugars >  16 tsp./day 420 (52) 163 (51) 156 (44) 86 (46) 102 (35) 53 (39) 102 (40) 49 (35)
 DSQb – sugar sweetened beverages > 6 tsp./day 494 (61) 202 (63) 209 (58) 113 (59) 136 (47) 68 (50) 140 (54) 76 (54)
 DSQb – whole grains >.65 oz./day 437 (54) 147 (46) 162 (46) 76 (40) 138 (48) 63 (47) 113 (44) 69 (50)
 DSQb - fiber > 15 g/day 419 (52) 166 (53) 156 (44) 61 (33) 120 (42) 60 (45) 103 (40) 50 (36)
 DSQb - calcium > 900 mg/day 522 (65) 185 (59) 184 (52) 94 (51) 125 (44) 65 (49) 112 (44) 65 (47)
 Eating habits on campusT1,T2,T3, Healthy 547 (67) 184 (57) 227 (63) 87 (46) 201 (69) 66 (49) 158 (61) 74 (52)
 Eating habits off campus Healthy 497 (62) 173 (55) 223 (62) 105 (55) 179 (62) 76 (56) 159 (62) 79 (57)
Alcohol behaviors          
 Drink alcohol Ever 575 (71) 238 (74) 224 (62) 138 (72) 165 (57) 88 (65) 148 (57) 87 (62)
 Binge drinking Yes 209 (37) 98 (41) 85 (38) 69 (50) 63 (39) 38 (43) 56 (38) 35 (40)
Physical activity (PA) and leisure time behaviors         
 Moderate-vigorous PA > 30 mins/day 539 (67) 197 (62) 196 (55) 95 (50) 160 (55) 73 (54) 147 (58) 76 (55)
 PA habits on campusT2 Healthy 588 (73) 208 (65) 219 (62) 94 (49) 194 (67) 82 (62) 166 (65) 81 (57)
 PA habits off campusT1 Healthy 532 (66) 172 (54) 206 (58) 88 (47) 159 (55) 64 (48) 149 (58) 66 (47)
 Screen time ≥150 mins/day 531 (66) 191 (60) 278 (78) 143 (75) 209 (72) 89 (66) 186 (73) 93 (66)
Sleep quality          
 Enough sleepT1, T3 ≥5 times /week 280 (35) 62 (21) 90 (25) 30 (16) 112 (39) 32 (24) 56 (22) 18 (13)
 Wake up too early ≥1 times /week 157 (20) 84 (27) 48 (13) 37 (20) 58 (20) 29 (21) 53 (21) 27 (19)
 Feel tired during the dayT2, T3 ≥4 times /week 317 (40) 149 (47) 174 (49) 115 (61) 108 (37) 71 (53) 137 (54) 83 (60)
Mental health outcomes          
 Perceived stressT1, T2, T3, T4 High c 338 (41) 193 (60) 168 (47) 131 (67) 115 (39) 81 (60) 117 (45) 94 (66)
 Depressed moodT1, T2, T3, T4 Highd 294 (36) 189 (59) 141 (39) 129 (66) 110 (38) 71 (52) 104 (40) 95 (67)
 Anxiety T1, T2 Diagnosed or Treated 93 (11) 67 (21) 30 (8) 38 (19) 30 (10) 26 (19) 28 (11) 23 (16)
  1. T1, T2, T3,T4chi-square test significant at p ≤ 0.01 at Times 1,2,3, and 4, respectively
  2. aFS = food secure. FI = food insecure
  3. bDSQ = Dietary Screener Questionnaire
  4. cPerceived stress based on a 4-question, 4-point Likert scale; High was defined as > 8
  5. dDepressed mood based on a 6-question, 4-point Likert scale; High was defined as > 2