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Table 1 Participant characteristics and dietary intake in the 1995 National Nutrition Survey and the 2011–13 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

From: Are dietary inequalities among Australian adults changing? a nationally representative analysis of dietary change according to socioeconomic position between 1995 and 2011–13

Variables 1995 National Nutrition Survey 2011–13 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey
Men Women Overall Men Women Overall
  n = 4498 n = 4779 n = 9277 n = 3897 n = 4310 n = 8207
Sex/gendera 4498 (50.9) [49.8, 51.9] 4779 (49.2) [48.1, 50.2]   3897 (51.7) [50.2, 53.1] 4310 (48.3) [46.9, 49.8]  
Ageb 43.2 [42.6, 43.8] 45.4 [44.8, 46.0] 44.3 [43.8, 44.8] 46.7 [46.0, 47.4] 47.9 [47.2, 48.6] 47.3 [46.8, 47.8]
Equivalized weekly household incomea
 Low (decile 1–3) 1115 (24.9) [23.4, 26.5] 1492 (31.5) [29.9, 33.1] 2607 (28.1) [26.9, 29.4] 1014 (24.5) [22.8, 26.3] 1520 (31.5) [29.7, 33.3] 2534 (27.9) [26.6, 29.2]
 Medium (decile 4–7) 1731 (38.2) [36.5, 40.0] 1793 (37.7) [36.1, 39.4] 3524 (38.0) [36.6, 39.3] 1484 (41.1) [39.1, 43.2] 1626 (40.0) [38.0, 42.0] 3110 (40.6) [39.2, 42.0]
 High (decile 8–10) 1652 (36.9) [35.2, 38.6] 1494 (30.9) [29.3, 32.4] 3146 (33.9) [32.6, 35.3] 1399 (34.3) [32.4, 36.4] 1164 (28.5) [26.7, 30.4] 2563 (31.5) [30.2, 32.9]
Educational levela
 Low (less than secondary) 2172 (45.9) [44.2, 47.7] 2703 (55.0) [53.2, 56.7] 4875 (50.4) [49.1, 51.7] 936 (22.4) [20.7, 24.1] 1359 (29.0) [27.3, 30.8] 2295 (25.6) [24.4, 26.9]
 Medium (secondary/diploma/trade) 2001 (46.1) [44.3, 47.9] 1784 (39.4) [37.7, 41.1] 3785 (42.8) [41.5, 44.1] 2017 (54.1) [52.0, 56.2] 1774 (43.3) [41.3, 45.4] 3791 (48.9) [47.4, 50.4]
 High (tertiary) 325 (8.0) [7.0, 9.1] 292 (5.7) [5.0, 6.5] 617 (6.8) [6.2, 7.6] 944 (23.5) [21.8, 25.3] 1177 (27.7) [25.9, 29.5] 2121 (25.5) [24.3, 26.8]
Area-level disadvantagea
 1st quintile (most disadvantaged) 829 (17.7) [16.3, 19.1] 949 (19.3) [18.0, 20.7] 1778 (18.5) [17.4, 19.6] 717 (18.3) [16.7, 20.0] 865 (19.1) [17.5, 20.7] 1582 (18.7) [17.6, 19.8]
 2nd quintile 863 (18.8) [17.5, 20.3] 924 (19.3) [17.9, 20.7] 1787 (19.1) [17.9, 20.3] 819 (21.0) [19.4, 22.8] 900 (20.0) [18.4, 21.6] 1719 (20.5) [19.4, 21.7]
 3rd quintile 881 (17.8) [16.4, 19.2] 929 (18.1) [16.8, 19.5] 1810 (18.0) [16.9, 19.1] 779 (20.7) [19.1, 22.5] 854 (21.0) [19.4, 22.7] 1633 (20.9) [19.7, 22.1]
 4th quintile 943 (21.4) [19.9, 23.0] 1010 (21.0) [19.7, 22.5] 1953 (21.2) [20.0, 22.5] 719 (19.6) [18.0, 21.4] 734 (18.2) [16.6, 19.8] 1453 (18.9) [17.8, 20.1]
 5th quintile (least disadvantaged) 982 (24.3) [22.7, 26.1] 967 (22.2) [20.7, 23.8] 1949 (23.3) [22.0, 24.7] 863 (20.3) [18.7, 22.1] 957 (21.8) [20.2, 23.6] 1820 (21.1) [19.9, 22.3]
Smokinga
 Never 1710 (39.8) [38.1, 41.6] 2627 (56.3) [54.6, 58.0] 4337 (47.9) [46.6, 49.2] 1570 (43.8) [41.7, 45.9] 2342 (57.1) [55.1, 59.1] 3912 (50.2) [48.8, 51.7]
 Former 1564 (31.7) [30.1, 33.3] 1068 (20.9) [19.6, 22.2] 2632 (26.4) [25.3, 27.5] 1489 (36.3) [34.3, 38.3] 1227 (27.4) [25.7, 29.2] 2716 (32.0) [30.7, 33.4]
 Current 1224 (28.5) [26.8, 30.2] 1084 (22.8) [21.4, 24.3] 2308 (25.7) [24.5, 26.9] 838 (19.9) [18.3, 21.6] 741 (15.4) [14.1, 16.9] 1579 (17.8) [16.7, 18.9]
Energy (kJ)b 11,272 [11,118, 11,427] 7553 [7452, 7653] 9444 [9338, 9550] 9988 [9830, 10,147] 7398 [7281, 7516] 8737 [8629, 8844]
Carbohydrate (%E)b,c 44.4 [44.0, 44.7] 46.1 [45.8, 46.4] 45.2 [45.0, 45.5] 43.3 [42.8, 43.7] 43.5 [43.0, 43.9] 43.4 [43.1, 43.7]
Total sugars (%E)b,c 19.1 [18.8, 19.4] 20.4 [20.1, 20.7] 19.8 [19.5, 20.0] 18.6 [18.2, 18.9] 19.8 [19.4, 20.2] 19.2 [18.9, 19.4]
Protein (%E)b,c 16.7 [16.5, 16.8] 16.8 [16.6, 17.0] 16.7 [16.6, 16.9] 18.2 [17.9, 18.4] 18.5 [18.3, 18.8] 18.4 [18.2, 18.5]
Fat (%E)b,c 31.8 [31.5, 32.1] 31.7 [31.4, 32.0] 31.8 [31.5, 32.0] 30.5 [30.1, 30.9] 31.2 [30.8, 31.5] 30.8 [30.6, 31.1]
SFA (%E)b,c 12.5 [12.4, 12.7] 12.4 [12.2, 12.5] 12.4 [12.3, 12.6] 11.5 [11.3, 11.7] 11.5 [11.3, 11.7] 11.5 [11.4, 11.6]
MUFA (%E)b,c 11.7 [11.6, 11.8] 11.4 [11.3, 11.5] 11.5 [11.4, 11.6] 11.7 [11.5, 11.9] 11.9 [11.7, 12.0] 11.8 [11.7, 11.9]
PUFA (%E)b,c 4.8 [4.7, 4.8] 4.9 [4.9, 5.0] 4.9 [4.8, 4.9] 4.7 [4.6, 4.8] 5.0 [4.9, 5.1] 4.8 [4.7, 4.9]
Fiber density (g/1000 kJ)b 1.91 [1.88, 1.94] 2.25 [2.22, 2.28] 2.08 [2.05, 2.10] 2.62 [2.57, 2.67] 2.95 [2.89, 3.01] 2.78 [2.74, 2.82]
  n = 3346 n = 3732 n = 7078 n = 3898 n = 4311 n = 8209
Fruit (≥ 2 serves/d)a 1578
(45.9) [43.8, 48.0]
2013 (54.6) [52.6, 56.6] 3591 (50.2) [48.7, 51.7] 1641 (42.3) [40.3, 44.4] 2331 (54.2) [52.2, 56.2] 3972 (48.1) [46.6, 49.5]
Vegetables (≥ 4 serves/d)a 572 (15.4) [14.0, 16.9] 823 (21.9) [20.3, 23.6] 1395 (18.6) [17.5, 19.8] 627 (16.5) [15.0, 18.1] 956 (21.6) [20.0, 23.3] 1583 (19.0) [17.8, 20.1]
  1. aValues represent n, weighted proportions and 95% CI, n (%) [95% CI]
  2. bValues represent weighted means and 95% CI, mean [95% CI]
  3. c%E: proportion of energy intake