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Table 5 Change models: associations of potential determinants with changes in total physical activity (TPA), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB)a

From: Physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschoolers: a longitudinal assessment of trajectories and determinants

  TPA [cpm] MVPA [min/day] SB [min/day]
  β 95% CI p-value β 95% CI p-value β 95% CI p-value
Demographic and biological variables   
 Sex 22.2 (−13.2, 57.7) 0.218 4.4 (−2.3, 11.1) 0.195 −8.0 (−21.2, 5.2) 0.238
 Age −28.4 (−66.2, 9.3) 0.139 −5.6 (−12.3, 1.2) 0.108 −3.9 (−17.5 9.7) 0.571
 Birth weight 0.4 (−3.1, 3.9) 0.817 0.0 (−0.6, 0.6) 0.996 −0.3 (−1.4, 0.9) 0.660
 Chronic health condition 2.9 (−67.4,73.2) 0.936 2.2 (−10.2, 14.7) 0.726 −4.6 (−30.7, 21.4) 0.726
 BMI −26.5 (−68.9, 15.9) 0.220 −3.9 (−11.4, 3.5) 0.303 4.1 (−12.2, 20.3) 0.622
 Gross motor skills −16.8 (−37.6, 3.9) 0.111 −3.0 (−6.6, 0.6) 0.111 5.3 (−1.7, 12.3) 0.142
 Siblings 50.5 (12.4, 88.6) 0.010 10.1 (3.1, 17.0) 0.004 −8.2 (−23.3, 6.9) 0.287
 Parental BMI −11.0 (−48.6, 26.6) 0.566 −3.0 (−9.7, 3.7) 0.389 6.2 (−8.2, 20.6) 0.395
 SES 0.0 (−1.3, 1.4) 0.969 0.0 (−0.2, 0.2) 0.792 0.0 (−0.5, 0.4) 0.858
 Family structure −7.3 (−79.9, 65.3) 0.842 −1.1 (− 13.6, 11.4) 0.864 17.8 (−6.9, 42.6) 0.158
Psychological, cognitive and emotional variables   
 Self-regulation 0.4 (−1.8, 2.6) 0.735 0.1 (−0.3, 0.4) 0.683 0.1 (−0.7, 0.87) 0.833
 Psychological difficulties −4.4 (−9.7, 0.9) 0.105 −0.9 (−1.8, 0.1) 0.076 0.5 (−1.4, 2.5) 0.587
 Emotionality temperament 11.1 (−21.2, 43.4) 0.497 2.1 (−3.7, 7.9) 0.480 −3.3 (−15.1, 8.6) 0.588
 Activity temperament −8.0 (−39.1, 23.1) 0.612 −0.1 (−5.8, 5.6) 0.976 6.8 (−4.1, 17.8) 0.221
 Shyness temperament 0.5 (−28.2, 29.2) 0.974 0.4 (−4.7, 5.4) 0.880 2.2 (−7.9, 12.2) 0.672
 Parenting stress −0.5 (−3.2, 2.2) 0.719 −0.1 (−0.5, 0.4) 0.742 0.1 (−0.9, 1.1) 0.828
 Cognitive performance −4.7 (−24.1, 14.7) 0.637 −2.2 (−5.6, 1.2) 0.203 −0.7 (−7.6, 6.2) 0.842
Behavioral variables   
 Sleep duration −3.0 (−34.7, 28.7) 0.853 0.1 (−5.5, 5.6) 0.984 4.7 (−5.6, 14.9) 0.375
 Play frequency 53.5 (−10.9, 117.8) 0.103 7.2 (−4.2, 18.6) 0.216 −11.9 (−36.4, 12.5) 0.337
Social and cultural variables   
 Parental sedentary behavior −0.9 (−6.9, 5.1) 0.761 − 0.2 (−1.3, 0.8) 0.670 0.5 (−1.7, 2.7) 0.683
 Parental sports club membership 3.9 (−41.3, 49.1) 0.866 2.6 (−5.5, 10.7) 0.531 7.3 (−9.0, 23.6) 0.376
 Parental physical activity −6.8 (−47.3, 33.8) 0.743 −0.5 (−7.7, 6.7) 0.898 3.5 (−11.1, 18.2) 0.637
 Parental Involvement in child PA −9.8 (−51.3, 31.7) 0.643 −2.9 (−9.9, 4.2) 0.428 0.3 (−15.3, 15.9) 0.968
 Transport to childcare −0.5 (−39.5, 38.6) 0.981 −0.7 (−7.6, 6.1) 0.836 3.7 (−10.4, 17.8) 0.610
 Parental tobacco use −4.0 (−48.2, 40.2) 0.859 −0.5 (−8.5, 7.5) 0.902 1.7 (−15.8, 19.1) 0.853
 Parental alcohol consumption −12.9 (−98.2, 72.3) 0.764 −3.6 (−18.4, 11.1) 0.627 8.4 (−22.9, 39.6) 0.598
Environmental variables   
 Time outdoors −8.1 (−21.5, 5.2) 0.233 −0.5 (−2.93, 1.9) 0.705 2.4 (−2.5, 7.3) 0.335
 Fixed toys −5.8 (−19.2, 7.5) 0.392 −0.6 (−3.0, 1.7) 0.613 0.6 (−4.4, 5.5) 0.827
 Portable toys 3.5 (−11.8, 18.9) 0.651 0.5 (−2.2, 3.3) 0.695 −1.6 (−7.2, 4.0) 0.574
 Days at childcare 0.7 (−17.8, 19.1) 0.944 0.2 (−3.1, 3.4) 0.919 −0.4 (−7.0, 6.2) 0.907
 Living area per person 0.8 (−1.5, 3.1) 0.519 0.1 (−0.3, 0.4) 0.791 −0.4 (−1.3, 0.4) 0.331
 Neighborhood safety 1.2 (−1.6, 4.1) 0.402 0.1 (−0.4, 0.6) 0.691 −0.1 (−1.1, 1.0) 0.921
 Dog 15.6 (−55.2, 86.4) 0.664 3.6 (−9.4, 16.6) 0.584 −6.4 (−32.9, 20.2) 0.637
 Season −31.1 (−76.4, 14.3) 0.178 −4.0 (−12.4, 4.5) 0.356 3.7 (−12.6, 20.0) 0.657
 Region 1.1 (−43.7, 46.0) 0.961 0.3 (−7.9, 8.6) 0.938 −5.8 (−21.3, 9.7) 0.461
  1. PA physical activity, β β-coefficient, CI confidence interval
  2. aMultivariable linear mixed models including a random intercept for each childcare center (n = 394)