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Table 2 Sample characteristics and features of areas for each of the four analytic samples

From: Associations between local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and insufficient fruit intake, individual-level diet, and 10-year change in body mass index and glycosylated haemoglobin in an Australian cohort

  ΔHbA1c analytic samples ΔBMI analytic samples
Measure LDN: Overweight/obesity
n = 1908
LDN: Insufficient fruit intake
n = 1966
LDN: Overweight/obesity
n = 1630
LDN: Insufficient fruit intake
n = 1673
Individual-level characteristics Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Length of follow-up (years) 7.85 (1.05) 7.85 (1.05) 7.90 (1.03) 7.89 (1.03)
Age (years) 49.9 (15.2) 49.9 (15.2) 51.6 (16.3) 51.6 (16.2)
Sex (female) n (%) 1052 (55.1%) 1085 (55.2%) 830 (50.9%) 853 (51.0%)
Current smoker n (%) 335 (17.6%) 345 (17.6%) 288 (17.7%) 294 (17.6%)
Education (university graduate) n (%) 250 (13.1%) 254 (12.9%) 211 (12.9%) 213 (12.7%)
Marital status (married) n (%) 1227 (64.3%) 1260 (64.1%) 1031 (63.3%) 1060 (63.4%)
Not employed n (%) 816 (42.8%) 844 (42.9%) 748 (45.9%) 768 (45.9%)
Fruit intake (daily count of servings) (n = 1587) 1.5 (1.0) (n = 1638) 1.5 (1.0) (n = 1337) 1.5 (1.0) (n = 1375) 1.5 (1.0)
Vegetable intake (daily count of servings) (n = 1583) 2.5 (1.4) (n = 1633) 2.5 (1.4) (n = 1332) 2.5 (1.4) (n = 1370) 2.5 (1.4)
Drinks sugary drinks n (%) (n = 1588) 923 (58.1%) (n = 1639) 952 (58.1%) (n = 1337) 730 (54.6%) (n = 1375) 751 (54.6%)
HbA1c (n = 1904) 5.43 (0.45) (n = 1962) 5.43 (0.45) (n = 1610) 5.52 (0.66) (n = 1653) 5.52 (0.67)
BMI (kg/m2) 27.57 (5.20) 27.59 (5.20) 25.27 (2.86) 25.28 (2.86)
Environmental features Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
1600 m buffer area (km2) 4.71 (2.40) 4.72 (2.41) 4.78 (2.41) 4.78 (2.42)
LDN: Overweight/obesity 62.85 (6.18) 62.65 (6.15)
 n (SAMSS participants) per buffer 95.6 (31.5) 97.2 (31.7)
LDN: Insufficient fruit intake 53.79 (6.57) 53.36 (6.63)
 n (SAMSS participants) per buffer 100.3 (33.6) 102.0 (33.6)
Area-level median household income (A$/week) 838.45 (131.64) 837.13 (134.52) 839.06 (130.29) 838.15 (132.57)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, HbA 1c glycosylated haemoglobin, LDN local descriptive norms, SD standard deviation