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Table 2 Summary of the findings from the studies assessing perceived/general health status

From: Health outcomes associated with reallocations of time between sleep, sedentary behaviour, and physical activity: a systematic scoping review of isotemporal substitution studies

Study Sample and study design Measures of sleep, SB, LPA, MVPA Outcome measures Data analysis method/reallocated time Adjustments for confounding Results
Balboa-Castillo et al. [45] Older adults (n = 1097), Spain; prospective cohort Sleep, SB, housework, leisure-time physical activity (LPA, MVPA) – self-report HRQoL Mekary et al. [12]/60 min Age, sex, educational level, size of municipality of residence, consumption of tobacco, consumption of alcohol, self-reported diseases diagnosed by a physician, score on appropriate SF-36 scale in 2003, number of hours lying or sleeping, and total number of hours spent in all types of physical activity. β (95% CI)
Physical functioning
SB ↔ LPA: 3.41 (0.81, 6.00)
SB ↔ MVPA: 4.14 (1.92, 6.37)
SB ↔ housework: 1.04 (0.25, 1.85)
Physical role
SB ↔ LPA: 10.61 (6.08, 15.13)
SB ↔ MVPA: 1.19 (− 2.71, 5.10)
SB ↔ housework: 1.68 (0.27, 3.01)
Bodily pain
SB ↔ LPA: 4.22 (1.19, 7.26)
SB ↔ MVPA: 2.93 (0.31, 5.56)
SB ↔ housework: 1.05 (0.10, 1.99)
General health
SB ↔ LPA: 2.44 (0.66, 4.23)
SB ↔ MVPA: − 0.06 (− 1.61, 1.50)
SB ↔ housework: 0.31 (− 0.24, 0.87)
Vitality
SB ↔ LPA: 4.14 (1.58, 6.71)
SB ↔ MVPA: 2.51 (0.29, 4.73)
SB ↔ housework: 0.67 (− 0.13, 1.47)
Social functioning
SB ↔ LPA: 4.80 (1.84, 7.77)
SB ↔ MVPA: 2.06 (− 0.47, 4.61)
SB ↔ housework: 1.08 (0.14, 2.00)
Emotional role
SB ↔ LPA: 4.93 (0.98, 8.87)
SB ↔ MVPA: 1.03 (− 2.40, 4.46)
SB ↔ housework: 1.21 (− 0.03, 2.45)
Mental health
SB ↔ LPA: 2.51 (0.17, 4.86)
SB ↔ MVPA: 0.53 (− 1.51, 2.57)
SB ↔ housework: 0.83 (0.09, 1.57)
Buman et al. [47] Older adults (n = 862) from the 2005–2007 Senior Neighborhood Quality of Life Study, USA; prospective cohort SB, MVPA (“high-light” physical activity and “low-light” physical activity) – waist-worn accelerometers; sleep – not assessed Physical health and psychosocial well-being factors Mekary et al. [12]/30 min Age, sex, race, educational status, marital status, senior housing status, current smoking status and walkability index. β (95% CI)
Physical health
SB → “low-light” physical activity: 0.07 (0.04, 0.09)
SB → “high-light” physical activity: 0.30 (0.19, 0.42)
SB → MVPA: 0.34 (0.23, 0.44)
“Low-light” physical activity → SB: − 0.07 (− 0.09, − 0.04)
“Low-light” physical activity → “high-light” physical activity: 0.24 (0.11, 0.36)
“Low-light” physical activity → MVPA: 0.21 (0.10, 0.32)
“High-light” physical activity → SB: − 0.30 (− 0.42, − 0.19)
“High-light” physical activity → “low-light” physical activity: − 0.24 (− 0.36, − 0.11)
“High-light” physical activity → MVPA: − 0.27 (− 0.55, 0.01)
MVPA → SB: − 0.17 (− 0.22, − 0.12)
MVPA → “low-light” physical activity: − 0.10 (− 0.16, − 0.05)
MVPA → “high-light” physical activity: 0.14 (− 0.06, 0.27)
Psychosocial well-being
SB → “low-light” physical activity: 0.01 (− 0.02, 0.04)
SB → “high-light” physical activity: 0.24 (0.12, 0.36)
SB → MVPA: − 0.02 (− 0.13, 0.10)
“Low-light” physical activity → SB: − 0.01 (− 0.04, 0.02)
“Low-light” physical activity → “high-light” physical activity: 0.24 (0.10, 0.37)
“Low-light” physical activity → MVPA: − 0.03 (− 0.15, 0.08)
“High-light” physical activity → SB: − 0.24 (− 0.36, − 0.12)
“High-light” physical activity → “low-light” physical activity: − 0.24 (− 0.37, − 0.10)
“High-light” physical activity → MVPA: − 0.50 (− 0.81, − 0.19)
MVPA → SB: 0.01 (− 0.05, 0.07)
MVPA → “low-light” physical activity: 0.02 (− 0.04, 0.08)
MVPA → “high-light” physical activity: 0.25 (0.10, 0.41)
Fanning et al. [26] Low-active healthy older adults (n = 247), USA; cross-sectional SB, LPA, MVPA – waist-worn accelerometers; sleep – self report Self-regulation, spatial working memory, task-switching Mekary et al. [12]/30 min Age, sex, race. β (standard error)
Self-regulation – total score
SB → LPA: 0.60 (0.38)
SB → MVPA: 1.81 (0.80)
SB → sleep: 1.29 (0.39)
Self-regulation – self-monitoring
SB → LPA: 0.15 (0.09)
SB → MVPA: 0.27 (0.19)
SB → sleep: 0.23 (0.09)
Self-regulation – goal setting
SB → LPA: 0.11 (0.08)
SB → MVPA: 0.27 (0.18)
SB → sleep: 0.32 (0.09)
Self-regulation – social support
SB → LPA: 0.09 (0.06)
SB → MVPA: 0.08 (0.13)
SB → sleep: 0.18 (0.07)
Spatial working memory – item 2 reaction time
SB → LPA: − 0.16 (6.20)
SB → MVPA: − 4.46 (13.09)
SB → sleep: 1.13 (6.50)
Spatial working memory – item 3 reaction time
SB → LPA: − 0.19 (6.18)
SB → MVPA: − 5.60 (13.06)
SB → sleep: − 1.11 (6.49)
Spatial working memory – item 4 reaction time
SB → LPA: − 5.87 (6.57)
SB → MVPA: − 4.61 (13.88)
SB → sleep: − 0.21 (6.89)
Spatial working memory – item 2 accuracy
SB → LPA: − 0.01 (0.00)
SB → MVPA: 0.03 (0.01)
SB → sleep: − 0.00 (0.01)
Spatial working memory – item 3 accuracy
SB → LPA: − 0.01 (0.01)
SB → MVPA: 0.02 (0.01)
SB → sleep: − 0.00 (0.01)
Spatial working memory – item 4 accuracy
SB → LPA: − 0.00 (0.01)
SB → MVPA: 0.01 (0.01)
SB → sleep: − 0.00 (0.01)
Task-switching – single reaction time
SB → LPA: 7.45 (5.01)
SB → MVPA: − 23.12 (10.63)
SB → sleep: 4.12 (5.31)
Task-switching – mixed-repeat reaction time
SB → LPA: 5.00 (6.24)
SB → MVPA: − 27.06 (13.24)
SB → sleep: − 12.2 (6.61)
Task-switching – mixed-switch reaction time
SB → LPA: 1.04 (8.23)
SB → MVPA: − 28.24 (17.45)
SB → sleep: − 17.21 (8.71)
Task-switching – local switch cost reaction time
SB → LPA: − 3.93 (5.98)
SB → MVPA: − 0.40 (12.67)
SB → sleep: − 5.19 (6.33)
Task-switching – global switch cost reaction time
SB → LPA: − 2.84 (6.39)
SB → MVPA: − 1.54 (13.55)
SB → sleep: − 16.86 (6.77)
Task-switching – single accuracy
SB → LPA: − 0.00 (0.00)
SB → MVPA: 0.01 (0.01)
SB → sleep: − 0.01 (0.00)
Task-switching – mixed-repeat accuracy
SB → LPA: − 0.01 (0.01)
SB → MVPA: 0.01 (0.01)
SB → sleep: − 0.01 (0.01)
Task-switching – mixed-switch accuracy
SB → LPA: − 0.01 (0.01)
SB → MVPA: 0.01 (0.01)
SB → sleep: − 0.01 (0.01)
Task-switching – local switch accuracy
SB → LPA: 0.00 (0.00)
SB → MVPA: 0.00 (0.01)
SB → sleep: − 0.00 (0.00)
Task-switching – global switch accuracy
SB → LPA: 0.00 (0.01)
SB → MVPA: − 0.00 (0.01)
SB → sleep: 0.01 (0.01)
Loprinzi et al. [65] Adults (n = 5377) from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, USA; prospective cohort SB, LPA, MVPA – waist-worn accelerometers; sleep – not assessed HRQoL Mekary et al. [12]/30 min Age, sex, race–ethnicity, BMI, smoking status and education β (95% CI)
HRQoL
SB → LPA: 0.92 (0.85, 1.01)
SB → MVPA: 0.28 (0.13, 0.58)
LPA → SB: 1.07 (0.98, 1.17)
LPA → MVPA: 0.30 (0.14, 0.65)
MVPA→ SB: 3.54 (1.70, 7.40)
MVPA → LPA: 3.3 (1.54, 7.02)
Vallance et al. [34] Non-Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (n = 149) from the Western Australian
Cancer Registry, Australia; cross-sectional
SB bouts and non-bouts, standing, LPA, MVPA bouts and non-bouts – waist-worn accelerometers; sleep – self report Fatigue and HRQoL Mekary et al. [12]/30 min Sex, non-Hodgkin lymphoma type and time since diagnosis, country of birth, highest level of education, working status, comorbidity and non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatment β (95% CI)
Fatigue
Sleep ↔ SB bouts: 0.1 (− 1.0, 1.1)
Sleep ↔ SB non-bouts: 0.6 (− 0.5, 1.8)
Sleep ↔ LPA: 0.3 (− 0.8, 1.4)
Sleep ↔ MVPA non-bouts: 1.2 (− 2.4, 4.8)
Sleep ↔ MVPA bouts: 5.7 (1.8, 9.7)
SB bouts ↔ SB non-bouts: 0.5 (− 0.3, 1.4)
SB bouts ↔ LPA: 0.2 (− 0.5, 0.9)
SB bouts ↔ MVPA non-bouts: 1.1 (− 2.3, 4.5)
SB bouts ↔ MVPA bouts: 5.7 (1.6, 9.7)
SB non-bouts ↔ LPA: − 0.3 (− 1.5, 0.8)
SB non-bouts ↔ MVPA non-bouts: 0.6 (− 2.6, 3.9)
SB non-bouts ↔ MVPA bouts: 5.1 (1.0, 9.3)
LPA ↔ MVPA non-bouts: 0.9 (− 2.9, 4.8)
LPA ↔ MVPA bouts: 5.5 (1.5, 9.5)
MVPA non-bouts ↔ MVPA bouts: 4.5 (− 1.4, 10.5)
HRQoL
Sleep ↔ SB bouts: − 0.6 (− 1.9, 0.8)
Sleep ↔ SB non-bouts: − 0.2 (− 1.7, 1.3)
Sleep ↔ LPA: − 0.6 (− 2.1, 0.9)
Sleep ↔ MVPA non-bouts: 0.0 (− 4.7, 4.8)
Sleep ↔ MVPA bouts: 4.5 (− 0.8, 9.7)
SB bouts ↔ SB non-bouts: 0.4 (− 0.8, 1.5)
SB bouts ↔ LPA: − 0.1 (− 0.9, 0.8)
SB bouts ↔ MVPA non-bouts: 0.6 (− 3.9, 5.1)
SB bouts ↔ MVPA bouts: 5.0 (− 0.4, 10.4)
SB non-bouts ↔ LPA: − 0.4 (− 1.9, 1.1)
SB non-bouts ↔ MVPA non-bouts: 0.2 (− 4.1, 4.5)
SB non-bouts ↔ MVPA bouts: 4.6 (− 0.8, 10.1)
LPA ↔ MVPA non-bouts: 0.6 (− 4.4, 5.7)
LPA ↔ MVPA bouts: 5.1 (− 0.2, 10.4)
MVPA non-bouts ↔ MVPA bouts: 4.4 (− 3.5, 12.3)
Van Roekel et al. [73] Colorectal cancer survivors (n = 145) from the Energy for life after ColoRectal cancer study, Netherlands; cross-sectional Sleep, SB, standing, physical activity (defined as > 1.5 METs) – triaxial MOX activity monitor HRQoL Mekary et al. [12]/60 min Age, sex, number of comorbidities, smoking status, time since diagnosis, cancer stage, BMI, perceived deficiency in social support score, chemotherapy received, stoma, tumor subsite, education level and having a partner. β (95% CI)
Global quality of life
SB → standing: 1.0 (0.7, 1.5)
SB → physical activity: 1.2 (0.6, 2.5)
Standing → physical activity: 1.2 (0.5, 3.1)
Physical functioning
SB → standing: 1.1 (0.7, 1.7)
SB → physical activity: 1.7 (0.8, 3.7)
Standing → physical activity: 1.5 (0.5, 4.3)
Role functioning
SB → standing: 1.2 (0.8, 1.8)
SB → physical activity: 0.7 (0.3, 1.5)
Standing → physical activity: 0.6 (0.2, 1.6)
Social functioning
SB → standing: 1.2 (0.8, 1.8)
SB → physical activity: 0.6 (0.3, 1.3)
Standing → physical activity: 0.5 (0.2, 1.4)
Disability
SB → standing: 0.6 (0.4, 0.9)
SB → physical activity: 0.9 (0.4, 1.9)
Standing → physical activity: 1.6 (0.6, 4.2)
Fatigue
SB → standing: 1.0 (0.6, 1.4)
SB → physical activity: 0.6 (0.3, 1.3)
Standing → physical activity: 0.7 (0.3, 1.7)
Depression
SB → standing: 1.1 (0.7, 1.6)
SB → physical activity: 0.8 (0.4, 1.6)
Standing → physical activity: 0.8 (0.3, 1.9)
Anxiety
SB → standing: 1.1 (0.7, 1.5)
SB → physical activity: 0.7 (0.4, 1.5)
Standing → physical activity: 0.7 (0.3, 1.7)
  1. SB sedentary behaviour, LPA light intensity physical activity, MVPA moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, MPA moderate intensity physical activity, HRQoL health-related quality of life, MET metabolic equivalent of task, CI confidence interval