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Table 3 Summary of the findings from the studies assessing mental health outcomes

From: Health outcomes associated with reallocations of time between sleep, sedentary behaviour, and physical activity: a systematic scoping review of isotemporal substitution studies

Study Sample and study design Measures of sleep, SB, LPA, MVPA Outcome measures Data analysis method/reallocated time Adjustments for confounding Results
Janssen [60] Children (n = 20,122) from the Canadian Health Behavior in School-aged Children study, Canada; cross-sectional Sedentary video games, active outdoor play, active video games – self report; sleep – not assessed Mental health outcomes Mekary et al. [12]/60 min Sex, school grade, household structure, race, immigration status, socioeconomic status, smoking, frequency of drunkenness, active travel to school, participation in sport, and a diet composition factor score. PR (95% CI)
High emotional problems
Sedentary video games → active outdoor play: 0.94 (0.91, 0.97)
Active outdoor play → active video games: 1.07 (1.03, 1.11)
Active video games → sedentary video games: 1.07 (1.03, 1.10)
Active video games → active outdoor play: 0.93 (0.90, 0.97)
Sedentary video games → active outdoor play: 0.88 (0.85, 0.90)
Active outdoor play → sedentary video games: 1.14 (1.11, 1.17)
High life satisfaction
Sedentary video games → active outdoor play: 1.04 (1.02, 1.07)
Active outdoor play → active video games: 0.97 (0.95, 0.99)
Active video games → sedentary video games: 0.96 (0.94, 0.98)
Active video games → active outdoor play: 1.04 (1.01, 1.06)
Sedentary video games → active outdoor play: 1.08 (1.06, 1.10)
Active outdoor play → sedentary video games: 0.92 (0.91, 0.94)
High prosocial behaviour
Sedentary video games → active outdoor play: 1.13 (1.09, 1.16)
Active outdoor play → active video games: 0.94(0.91, 0.98)
Active video games → sedentary video games: 0.89 (0.86, 0.92)
Active video games → active outdoor play: 1.06 (1.02, 1.10)
Sedentary video games → active outdoor play: 1.19 (1.16, 1.22)
Active outdoor play → sedentary video games: 0.84 (0.82, 0.86)
Mekary et al. [69] Adult women (n = 32,900) from the Nurses’ Health Study, USA; prospective cohort Television watching, easy walking pace, average walking pace, brisk/very brisk walking pace, jogging/running, other physical activities, total discretionary time – self report; sleep – not assessed Risk of depression Mekary et al. [12]/60 min Age, weight, smoking, menopausal status, use of postmenopausal hormone therapy, previously diagnosed medical conditions, marital status, osteoarthritis, social or community group involvement, wealth and income, education, occupation, working status and educational level. RR (95% CI)
TV watching → easy walking: 1.32 (0.73, 2.38)
TV watching → average walking: 0.88 (0.77, 1.00)
TV watching → brisk walking: 0.76 (0.68, 0.85)
TV watching → running: 0.76 (0.45, 1.29)
TV watching → other activities: 0.93 (0.85, 1.01)
TV watching → total discretionary time: 1.03 (1.02, 1.05)
Easy walking → TV watching: 0.73 (0.42, 1.26)
Easy walking → average walking: 0.65 (0.37, 1.12)
Easy walking → brisk walking: 0.56 (0.32, 0.96)
Easy walking → running: 0.56 (0.26, 1.19)
Easy walking → other activities: 0.68 (0.39, 1.18)
Easy walking → total discretionary time: 1.42 (0.82, 2.45)
Average walking → TV watching: 1.13 (0.99, 1.29)
Average walking → easy walking: 1.49 (0.82, 2.71)
Average walking → brisk walking: 0.86 (0.74, 0.99)
Average walking → running: 0.86 (0.50, 1.48)
Average walking → other activities: 1.05 (0.89, 1.24)
Average walking → total discretionary time: 0.91 (0.80, 1.04)
Brisk walking → TV watching: 1.32 (1.18, 1.47)
Brisk walking → easy walking: 1.73 (0.96, 3.13)
Brisk walking → average walking: 1.16 (1.00, 1.34)
Brisk walking → running: 1.00 (0.58, 1.72)
Brisk walking → other activities: 1.22 (1.05, 1.42)
Brisk walking → total activity: 0.79 (0.70, 0.88)
Running → TV watching: 1.19 (0.74, 1.91)
Running → easy walking: 1.56 (0.74, 3.32)
Running → average walking: 1.05 (0.64, 1.70)
Running → brisk walking: 0.90 (0.55, 1.46)
Running → other activities: 1.10 (0.68, 1.80)
Running → total discretionary time: 0.87 (0.54, 1.40)
Other activities → TV Watching: 1.08 (0.99, 1.17)
Other activities → easy walking: 1.42 (0.78, 2.56)
Other activities → average walking: 0.95 (0.80, 1.11)
Other activities → brisk walking: 0.81 (0.70, 0.95)
Other activities → running: 0.82 (0.48, 1.40)
Other activities → total discretionary time: 0.96 (0.88, 1.05)
Rethorst et al. [31] Adults (n = 11,116) from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, USA; cross-sectional SB, LPA, MPA, VPA – waist-worn accelerometers; sleep – not assessed Depressive symptoms Mekary et al. [12]/60 min Age, sex, Hispanic background group, BMI, household income level, and education level, recruitment site, physical health and acculturation. β (95% CI)
SB ↔ LPA: − 0.003 (− 0.113, 0.107)
SB ↔ MPA: 0.285 (− 0.264, 0.834)
SB ↔ VPA: − 1.215 (− 2.250, − 0.180)
LPA ↔ MPA: 0.288 (− 0.304, 0.880)
LPA ↔ VPA: − 1.212 (− 2.244, − 0.179)
MPA ↔ VPA: − 1.5 (− 2.883, − 0.116)
  1. SB sedentary behaviour, LPA light intensity physical activity, MVPA moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, MPA moderate intensity physical activity, VPA vigorous physical activity, BMI body mass index, PR prevalence ratio, RR relative risk, CI confidence interval