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Table 4 Additive interaction between quartiles of fast-food outlet proportion and household income on the odds of being obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), modelled using a binomial logistic regression model in the UK Biobank sample, UK (n = 51,361)

From: Examining the interaction of fast-food outlet exposure and income on diet and obesity: evidence from 51,361 UK Biobank participants

  Quartiles of fast-food outlet proportiona Fast-food outlet exposure (Q4) within household income strata
Q1 (0–13%) Q2 (13–17%) Q3 (17–24%) Q4 (24–45%)
Household Income (£/year) Obese/not obese (n) OR (95% CI) Obese/not obese (n) OR (95% CI) Obese/not obese (n) OR (95% CI) Obese/not obese (n) OR (95% CI)
>  100,000 264/2145 refb 206/1298 1.30 (1.07, 1.59);
P = 0.008c
143/733 1.60 (1.27, 2.00);
P < 0.001c
104/487 1.73 (1.34, 2.23);
P < 0.001c
1.53 (1.12, 2.08)
P = 0.008d
52,000–100,000 433/2624 1.27 (1.08, 1.50);
P = 0.004c
475/2559 1.44 (1.22, 1.69);
P < 0.001c
494/2069 1.81 (1.53, 2.13);
P < 0.001c
581/1834 2.26 (1.91, 2.66);
P < 0.001c
1.69 (1.43, 2.02)
P < 0.001d
31,000–51,999 389/2007 1.42 (1.20, 1.69);
P < 0.001c
495/2162 1.64 (1.39, 1.93);
P < 0.001c
605/2151 1.95 (1.66, 2.29);
P < 0.001c
724/2157 2.20 (1.87, 2.58);
P < 0.001c
1.51 (1.27, 1.80)
P < 0.001d
<  31,000 687/26922 1.67 (1.43, 1.95);
P < 0.001c
957/2902 2.05 (1.76, 2.39);
P < 0.001c
1271/3292 2.30 (1.98, 2.68);
P < 0.001c
1401/3397 2.43 (2.09, 2.84);
P < 0.001c
1.56 (1.37, 1.78)
P < 0.001d
Household income (< £31,000/year) within takeaway exposure strata 1.58 (1.34, 1.88)
P < 0.001e
  1.36 (1.15, 1.65)
P = 0.001e
  1.49 (1.21, 1.82)
P < 0.001e
  1.53 (1.22, 1.93)
P < 0.001e
 
  1. Measure of interaction (fast-food exposure*household income with odds of obesity) on a multiplicative scale based on a likelihood ratio test, P = 0.054 | Measure of interaction on an additive scale for Q4 fast-food exposure and household income < £31,000 (RERI) = 0.03. RERI scores > 0 suggest positive interaction and departure from additivity | ORs are adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity smoking status, number in household, highest education attainment, UK Biobank assessment centre attended, and the sum of counts of Supermarkets, Restaurants, Convenience stores, Cafes and Specialist Stores within 1 mile Euclidean (straight line) radius buffers of home address | a Q1 = quartile with lowest fast-food outlet proportion in home neighbourhood (min – max %) – Q4 = quartile with greatest fast-food outlet proportion in home neighbourhood (% range) | b Single reference group; those exposed to the highest proportion of fast-food outlets and with the highest household income | c ORs and p values relative to single reference group (ref) | d ORs and P values relative to those who were least exposed to fast-food outlets within strata of household income | e ORs and P values relative to those with the highest household incomes within strata of fast-food outlet exposure