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Table 5 Effect of RP intervention on use of feeding to soothe, mean (SD)

From: INSIGHT responsive parenting intervention and infant feeding practices: randomized clinical trial

  Parenting
(n = 140)
Control
(n = 139)
p-valuec Odds ratio (CI) or Cohen’s D
When infant cries, I immediately feed (denominator = all available)
 16 weeks
  Never 33/131 (25.2%) 18/129 (14.0%) 0.01 0.6 (0.4–0.9)
  Seldom 57/131 (43.5%) 58/129 (45.0%)
  Half of the time 34/131 (26.0%) 37/129 (28.7%)
  Most of the time 7/131 (5.3%) 11/129 (8.5%)
  Always 0/131 (0%) 5/129 (3.9%)
 28 weeks
  Never 51/128 (39.8%) 33/126 (26.2%) 0.0009 0.5 (0.3–0.7)
  Seldom 52/128 (40.6%) 46/126 (36.5%)
  Half of the time 23/128 (18.0%) 36/126 (28.6%)
  Most of the time 2/128 (1.6%) 8/126 (6.4%)
  Always 0/128 (0%) 3/126 (2.4%)
Food to soothe: Context-baseda
 8 weeks 2.57 (0.81), n = 129 2.83 (0.72), n = 119 0.008 0.34
 16 weeks 2.50 (0.74), n = 130 2.76 (0.84), n = 123 0.009 0.33
 32 weeks 2.00 (0.62), n = 117 2.43 (0.82), n = 112 < 0.0001 0.59
 44 weeks 2.16 (0.70), n = 116 2.56 (0.76), n = 118 < 0.0001 0.55
Food to soothe: Emotion-baseda
 8 weeks 1.78 (0.94), n = 128 2.01 (0.92), n = 110 0.07 0.25
 16 weeks 1.57 (0.77), n = 125 1.90 (0.89), n = 116 0.002 0.40
 32 weeks 1.36 (0.50), n = 117 1.65 (0.71), n = 110 0.0003 0.47
 44 weeks 1.31 (0.47), n = 115 1.62 (0.71), n = 117 0.0001 0.51
Food to soothe efficacy: Beveragesb
 8 weeks 3.09 (0.72), n = 129 3.31 (0.69), n = 122 0.02 0.31
 16 weeks 2.93 (0.76), n = 123 3.15 (0.68), n = 128 0.01 0.31
 32 weeks 2.55 (0.77), n = 100 2.77 (0.75), n = 104 0.03 0.29
 44 weeks 2.36 (0.70), n = 97 2.56 (0.75), n = 104 0.046 0.28
Food to soothe efficacy: Solid Foods2
 32 weeks 1.83 (0.48), n = 46 2.06 (0.45), n = 54 0.02 0.49
 44 weeks 2.03 (0.46), n = 58 2.11 (0.57), n = 73 0.43 0.15
  1. Notes. aScale ranged from 1 (never) to 5 (always) bScale ranged from 1 (does not work) to 4 (works all of the time)
  2. cp for study group difference, ANOVA or logistic regression adjusted for stratification variables