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Table 3 Active Travel and Affect: Structural Equation Model Testing Autonomous and Controlled Motivation as Moderators

From: Domain-specific physical activity and affective wellbeing among adolescents: an observational study of the moderating roles of autonomous and controlled motivation

  Unadjusted model Adjusted model
β SE p R 2 β SE p R 2
Self-report model
Positive Affect
  Active travel −.04 .04 .30   −.04 .03 .17  
  Autonomous motivation towards active travel .41 .06 <.001   .45 .05 <.001  
  Controlled motivation towards active travel .00 .07 .98   −.11 .06 .06  
  Active Travel × Autonomous Motivation .02 .03 .47   −.01 .03 .70  
  Active Travel × Controlled Motivation −.08 .05 .11   .01 .01 .09  
  Age      .02 .02 .12  
  Sex      .02 .01 .12  
  SES      .03 .02 .12  
  BMI      .05 .03 .12  
     .19***     .19***
Negative Affect
  Active travel .01 .03 .73   .02 .03 .53  
  Autonomous motivation towards active travel −.06 .06 .37   −.10 .09 .26  
  Controlled motivation towards active travel .19 .06 <.01   .29 .04 <.001  
  Active Travel × Autonomous Motivation −.01 .03 .87   .04 .04 .30  
  Active Travel × Controlled Motivation .08 .04 .03   −.01 .01 .19  
  Age      −.02 .01 .22  
  Sex      −.02 .01 .22  
  SES      −.02 .01 .22  
  BMI      −.03 .01 .22  
     .09**     085***
Objective model
Positive Affect
  Active travel −.02 .03 .39   −.01 .03 .65  
  Autonomous motivation towards active travel .28 .06 <.001   .28 .08 <.001  
  Controlled motivation towards active travel −.11 .11 .36   −.08 .07 .23  
  Active Travel × Autonomous Motivation .09 .03 <.01   .09 .04 .03  
  Active Travel × Controlled Motivation .04 .05 .42   .01 .00 .05  
  Age      .03 .02 .07  
  Sex      .03 .02 .07  
  SES      .04 .02 .07  
  BMI      .06 .03 .07  
     .17***     .17***
Negative Affect
  Active travel −.12 .03 <.001   −.11 .03 <.001  
  Autonomous motivation towards active travel .02 .06 .84   .03 .09 .71  
  Controlled motivation towards active travel .34 .12 <.01   .27 .06 <.001  
  Active Travel × Autonomous Motivation −.02 .03 .37   −.03 .03 .35  
  Active Travel × Controlled Motivation −.05 .05 .37   −.01. .00 <.001  
  Age      −.04 .01 <.001  
  Sex      −.04 .01 <.001  
  SES      −.04 .02 <.001  
  BMI      .06 .03 .07  
     .09*     .09**
  1. BMI Body Mass Index, PA physical activity, SES socioeconomic status. Adjusted model includes age, sex, socioeconomic status, and body mass index as covariates
  2. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001