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Table 1 Summary of study characteristics, quality measures and outcomes

From: How should long-term free-living physical activity be targeted after stroke? A systematic review and narrative synthesis

Study Study characteristics Quality measures Intervention (brief description) Control (brief description) Primary outcome measure PA outcome measures Changes in PA outcome measures
Very promising
Olney et al. 2006 [31] Sample size:
N = 74
IG: 38, CG: 36
Gender:
M: 45 (62.5%), F: 27 (37.5%)
Mean (SD) age in years:
IG: 63.5 (12)
CG: 65.8 (11.6)
Follow-up times: 10 weeks, 6 months & 1 year
Fidelity score:
3/16 (19%)
Methodological quality ratings:
Low risk: 5
Unclear risk: 2
High risk: 3
10-week supervised strengthening and conditioning programme 1-week supervised exercise followed by a 9-week unsupervised home exercise programme Six-minute walking speed (function) Human Activity Profile (adjusted activity score) At 12 months, there was a significant increase in PA in IG compared to CG (p < 0.05)
Quite promising
Damush et al. 2011 [32] Sample size: N = 63
IG: 30, CG: 33
Gender:
M: 62 (98%); F: 1 (2%)
Mean (SD) age in years:
IG: 67.3 (12.4)
CG: 64 (8.4)
Follow-up times:
Baseline, 3 months and 6 months
Fidelity score:
6/16 (38%)
Methodological quality ratings:
Low risk: 4
Unclear: 3
High risk: 1
12-week stroke self-management program focusing on increasing self-efficacy Stroke-related education materials & pamphlets on secondary stroke prevention. 6 bi-weekly telephone calls for 12 wks, during which participants were asked how they were doing that day Stroke-specific quality of life, assessed using the SSQOL (quality of life) Frequency of exercise behaviour within the past week measured using validated scale At 3 and 6 months, PA increased in IG compared to CG (no significant difference)
Ludwig et al. 2016 [33] Sample size: N = 20
Group specific information unavailable
Gender: information unavailable
Mean age in years: 51.5
SD unavailable
Follow-up times:
4 weeks, 3 months and 6 months after rehabilitation
Fidelity score:
9/16 (56%)
Methodological quality ratings:
Low risk: 2
Unclear risk: 4
High risk: 2
A theory-based training session delivered after a course of Nordic walking Control group participants were invited to a single face-to-face training session based on positive gain and a power point presentation on the health benefits of physical activity Walking-training frequency and duration of each set per week, using questionnaire (PA behaviour) Walking-training frequency and duration of each set per week, using questionnaire Stroke patients in IG showed tendency toward increased PA levels compared to those in CG (no significant difference)
Morén et al. 2016 [34] Sample size: N = 88
IG: 44, CG: 44
Gender:
M: 41 (47%); F: 47 (53%)
Mean age (SD) in years:
IG: 69.9 (9.1)
CG: 72.3 (8.3)
Follow-up times:
3 months and 6 months
Fidelity score:
7/16 (44%)
Methodological quality ratings:
Low risk: 6
Unclear risk: 2
High risk: 1
Delivery of Physical activity Prescription (PaP) Usual care MVPA assessed by Actigraph activity monitor worn on back (PA behaviour) MVPA and steps per day, assessed by Actigraph activity monitor worn on back At 6 months, IG showed tendency towards an increase in steps per day compared to CG (no significant difference)
Severinsen et al. 2014 [35] Sample size: N = 43
IG1: 13, IG2: 14, CG: 16
Gender:
M: 31 (72%); F: 12 (28%)
Median (IQR) age in years:
IG1: 69 (50–80)
IG2: 68 (57–78)
CG: 66 (52–80)
Follow-up times:
1 year
Fidelity score:
5/16 (31%)
Methodological quality ratings:
Low risk: 3
Unclear risk: 2
High risk: 3
Aerobic training (IG 1) or progressive resistance training (IG 2) Low-intensity sham training 6-min walking distance and fast 10-min walking speed (function) Physical Activity Scale scores expressed as metabolic equivalents All groups showed significant increases in PA at study end (P < 0.05). No significant between-group difference
Wan et al. 2016 [36] Sample size: N = 91
IG: 46, CG: 45
Gender:
M: 57 (71%); F: 23 (29%)
Mean age (SD) in years:
IG: 59.07 (12.36)
CG: 60.24 (12.57)
Follow-up times:
3 months and 6 months
Fidelity score:
6/16 (38%)
Methodological quality ratings:
Low risk: 6
Unclear risk: 1
High risk: 1
Goal-setting telephone follow-up program Usual care and educational stroke brochures (IG & CG) Health behaviour assessed using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II3 (lifestyle behaviour) 8 item physical activity subscale of the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II PA increased significantly in all groups at 3 and 6 months (P < 0.01) but no significant between-group difference
Non-promising
Katz-Leurer et al. 2003 [37] Sample size: N = 92
IG: 46, CG: 46
Gender:
M: 50 (54%); F: 42 (46%)
Mean age (SD) in years: 63 (11)
Group age characteristics unavailable
Follow-up times:
6 months
Fidelity score:
5/16 (31%)
Methodological quality ratings:
Low risk: 3
Unclear risk: 4
High risk: 1
Early aerobic training Usual care Physical fitness measured by a graded stress test performed on a cycle ergometer (physical fitness) Independence in daily and social activities, using the Frenchay Activities Index No improvements in PA observed in IG or CG
Mudge et al. 2009 [38] Sample size: N = 58
IG: 31, CG: 27
Gender:
M: 32 (55%); F: 26 (45%)
Age: data unavailableFollow-up times:
3 months
Fidelity score:
12/16 (75%)
Methodological quality ratings:
Low risk: 6
Unclear risk: 1
High risk: 1
Circuit exercise based rehabilitation Attention-matched social and educational sessions Mean number of steps per day measured with StepWatch activity monitor (PA behaviour) Mean number of steps per day as measured by the StepWatch activity monitor, PADS score No improvements in PA observed in IG or CG
Sit et al. 2007 [39] Sample size: N = 190
IG: 107, CG: 83
Gender:
M: 105 (55%); F: 85 (45%)
Mean age (SD) in years:
IG: 63.5 (12)
CG: 65.8 (11.6)
Follow-up times:
Baseline, 1 week, 3 months
Fidelity score:
9/16 (56%)
Methodological quality ratings:
Low risk: 3
Unclear risk: 2
High risk: 3
Educational secondary stroke prevention programme Usual care and provision of information materials on stroke and stroke prevention Stroke knowledge; Self health monitoring practice; health behaviours (lifestyle behaviour) Modified Exercise Scale No improvements in PA observed in IG or CG
  1. CG, control group; F, female; IG, intervention group; M, male; N, number; PA, physical activity; SD, standard deviation