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Table 2 Intervention details described by TIDieR components

From: How should long-term free-living physical activity be targeted after stroke? A systematic review and narrative synthesis

Study Item 1 and 2 TIDieR: Brief name and why (including theory) Item 3–9 TIDieRa: What (materials and procedures), who provided, how, where, when & how much, tailoring BCTs
Very promising
Olney et al. 2006 [31]
TIDieR score:
8/12 (67%)
Brief name: Face to face structured exercise programme
Why: It is known that supervised exercise programs improve PA in the short-term but long-term effectiveness has not been established
Theory: None described
Materials: Heart rate monitor, Borg Scale
Procedures: Structured group exercise programme incorporating warm up, aerobic exercises, strength training, cool down
Who: Not described
How: Face to face
Where: Canada (North America), outpatient rehab centre
When & How much: 10 weeks, 1.5 h sessions, 3 days/week. Mean time since stroke: > 12 months
Tailoring: Tailored to each subject’s needs and adjusted weekly as indicated
Self-monitoring of outcome of behaviour, biofeedback, social support (unspecified), instruction on how to perform the behaviour, demonstration of the behaviour, behavioural practice/rehearsal, graded tasks, adding objects to the environment (n = 8)
Quite promising
Damush et al. 2011 [32]
TIDieR score:
12/12 (100%)
Brief name: Telephone PA supported self-management
Why: Most stroke or TIA survivors do not adequately control their stroke risk factors
Theory: Social Cognitive Theory
Materials: None described
Procedures: Discussions focussing on increasing self-efficacy were conducted
Who: Nurse, assistant physician, and Master’s level social scientist
How: By telephone
Where: USA (North America), veteran outpatient clinics
When & how much: 12 weeks, 6 bi-weekly sessions. Time since stroke: Participants were recruited < 1 month post stroke and started the intervention on discharge. Exact time post stroke was not described.
Tailoring: Personalised to levels of self-efficacy
Goal setting (behaviour), problem solving, action planning, review behaviour goal, feedback on behaviour, social support (unspecified), information about health consequences, information about social and environmental consequences, information about emotional consequences, graded tasks, credible source (n = 11)
Ludwig et al. 2016 [33]
TIDieR score:
9/12 (75%)
Brief name: Face to face PA supported self-management
Why: Accomplishment planning aids long-term orthopaedic rehabilitation but its applicability to neurological patients is unknown
Theory: Health Action Process Approach
Materials: Written standardised manual
Procedures: Participants completed a group training programme based on five volitional and motivational strategies: positive gain; planning of training dates; if then plans; anticipation and overcoming obstacles. These were applied to promote the uptake of walking in everyday life.
Who: Not described
How: Face to face in groups of 2–5
Where: Germany (Europe)
When & how much: 1 session, 80–90 min. Mean time since stroke: > 12 months
Tailoring: Action plan tailored to participants
Goal setting (behaviour), problem solving, action planning, self-monitoring of behaviour, social support (unspecified) (n = 5)
Morén et al. 2016 [34]
TIDieR score:
9/12 (75%)
Brief name: Face to face PA supported self-management
Why: Physical activity Prescription (PaP) has been found to benefit health conditions including metabolic syndrome, which is a risk factor for TIA
Theory: None described
Materials: Oral and written information on stroke and physical inactivity risk factors, accelerometer
Procedures: PaP was delivered to participants in the intervention group one week after discharge
Who provided: Physical therapist
How: Face to face and self-management
Where: Sweden (Europe)
When & how much: 1 session, 2 weeks after discharge. Time since stroke: not described
Tailoring: PaP was based on evidence including: reason for PaP, assessment of current PA level, participant’s own goal, and 1–2 prescribed activities
Goal setting (behaviour), action planning, feedback on behaviour, instruction on how to perform the behaviour, behavioural practice/rehearsal, credible source (n = 6)
Severinsen et al. 2014 [35]
TIDieR score:
10/12 (83%)
Brief name: Face to face structured exercise programme
Why: It is unclear whether aerobic and resistance training directly impact ambulation and if changes are maintained in the long-term
Theory: None described
Materials: Cycle ergometer,
resistance training machine, digital timing devices, isometric dynamometer, online respiratory gas exchange analyser, heart rate monitor
Procedures: Participants performed supervised group exercises at training facilities
Who provided: Physiotherapist
How: Face to face
Where: Denmark (Europe), stroke research centre
When & how much: 12 weeks, 3 times/week, 5 min warm up, 1 h training. Time since stroke: 6–36 months
Tailoring: Tailored to heart rate and one-repetition maximum
Biofeedback, instruction on how to perform the behaviour, demonstration of the behaviour, behavioural practice/rehearsal (n = 4)
Wan et al. 2016 [36]
TIDieR score:
9.5/12 (79%)
Brief name: Telephone PA supported self-management
Why: Many stroke patients do not follow health behaviour guidelines, especially in the long-term. Goal setting and telephone follow-up are effective in other areas but have not been investigated in relation to stroke
Theory: None described
Materials: Educational stroke brochures (IG & CG)
Procedures: Goal-setting follow-up program delivered by telephone
Who provided: Nurse
How: By telephone
Where: China (Asia), community based
When & how much: 3 months, 3 telephone calls at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after discharge, each lasting 15–20 min. Time since stroke: not described
Tailoring: Patients were involved in the goal setting and action planning process
Goal setting (behaviour), action planning, social support (unspecified), instruction on how to perform the behaviour, information about health consequences, information about social and environmental consequences, credible source (n = 7)
Non-promising
Katz-Leurer et al. 2003 [37]
TIDieR score:
9/12 (75%)
Brief name: Face to face structured exercise programme
Why: To determine the influence of an early exercise programme on functional capacity and long-term activity participation
Theory: None described
Materials: Leg cycle ergometer, heart rate monitor
Procedures: In addition to usual care, patients trained on a leg cycle ergometer
Who provided: Physiotherapist
How: Face to face
Where: Israel (Asia), inpatient rehab department
When & how much: 8 weeks; Weeks 1 & 2: 5 times/week, 10 mins/day increasing to 20; Weeks 3–8: 3 times/week, 30 mins/day, 60%/heart rate reserve. Time since stroke: < 1 month
Tailoring: Tailored to each individual based on initial bike stress test
Action Planning, monitoring of others without feedback, instruction on how to perform the behaviour, demonstration of the behaviour, behavioural practice/rehearsal, graded tasks (n = 6)
Mudge et al. 2009 [38]
TIDieR score:
10/12 (83%)
Brief description: Face to face structured exercise programme
Why: To determine whether gains in function resulting from an exercise based programme translate to home or community environment PA
Theory: None described
Materials: None described
Procedures: Participants took part in group exercise sessionsWho provided: not adequately described
How: Face to face
Where: New Zealand (Australasia), outpatient clinics
When & how much: 4 weeks, 3 times/week, 50–60 min sessions with 30 mins of exercise. Time since stroke: > 6 months
Tailoring: Sessions graded to each participant’s ability and progressed as tolerated
Social support (unspecified), instruction on how to perform the behaviour, demonstration of the behaviour, behavioural practice/rehearsal, graded tasks (n = 5)
Sit et al....... 2007 [39]
TIDieR score:
9.5/12 (79%)
Brief description: Face to face PA supported self-management
Why: Not described
Theory: None described
Materials: Personal log sheets, pedometer
Procedures: Educational group sessions were held using teaching, games, experience sharing and experimental learning methods
Who provided: Nurse
How: Face to face and self-management
Where: China (Asia), outpatient community
When & how much: 8 weeks, 1 session/week, 2 h each, in groups of 10–12. Time since stroke not described
Tailoring: The programme focused on individual goal setting and action plans
Problem solving, self-monitoring of behaviour, social support (unspecified), instruction on how to perform the behaviour, demonstration of the behaviour, behavioural practice/rehearsal, adding objects to the environment (n = 7)
  1. BCT, behaviour change technique; CG, control group; IG, intervention group; min(s), minutes; N, number; PA, physical activity; TIA, transient ischaemic attack; PaP, physical activity prescription;
  2. aItem 10 is not displayed in this table as no studies reported any intervention modifications. Items 11 and 12, which measure intervention fidelity, are not displayed, as fidelity is assessed using the criteria defined by (Bellg et al., 2004 [30])