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Table 1 Description of survey participants, by breakfasting regularity, and by breakfast type (by tertile in regular breakfast eaters)

From: Association between breakfast composition and abdominal obesity in the Swiss adult population eating breakfast regularly

Characteristics All survey participants Occasional breakfast eaters Regular breakfast eaterse ‘Traditional’ – Pattern 1 ‘Prudent’ – Pattern 2 ‘Western’ – Pattern 3
T1f T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3
N of participants 2019 (100%) 668 (33%) 1351 (67%) 451 450 450 451 450 450 451 450 450
Sex, n (%)
 Male 926 46 353 53 573 42 37 38 53 43 44 40 37 43 47
 Female 1093 54 315 47 778 58 63 62 47 57 56 60 63 57 53
Age, n (%)
 18–34 years old 541 27 238 36 303 22 28 23 17 32 18 18 20 17 30
 35–49 years old 588 29 205 31 383 28 30 29 26 31 27 27 26 29 29
 50–64 years old 554 27 167 25 387 29 29 28 29 23 32 31 31 30 25
 65–75 years old 336 17 58 9 278 21 13 20 29 14 24 24 22 23 16
Education: Highest degree, n (%)
 Secondary (e.g. apprenticeship and below) 1042 52 363 54 679 50 48 49 54 52 53 45 49 54 48
 Tertiary (e.g. high technical school, university) 977 48 305 46 672 50 52 51 46 48 47 55 51 46 52
Total energy intake, mean (±SD)a
 Mean of two 24-h dietary recalls (in kcal) 2175 710 2092 740 2217 690 2110 2074 2467 2182 2243 2225 2106 2171 2373
Breakfast energy intake, mean (±SD)
 Mean of two 24-h dietary recalls (in kcal) 381 261 181 192 479 232 386 412 639 420 499 519 451 440 546
Self-reported physical activity, mean (±SD)
 MET-min per week (from IPAQ) 3761 3287 3816 3404 3730 3220 3580 3547 3974 3473 3960 3665 3751 3680 3654
Abdominal obesity assessment, n (%)
 Waist-to-hip ratio: ≥ 0.9 (♂); ≥ 0.85 (♀)b,c 546 27 191 29 355 26 21 27 31 24 32 24 25 29 25
 Waist circumference: >  90 cm (♂); >  84 cm (♀)b 701 35 237 35 464 34 30 35 38 30 42 31 36 37 30
 Waist-to-height ratio: ≥ 0.5 (♂, ♀)d 799 40 285 43 514 38 32 39 43 35 46 34 38 42 34
 Body mass index: ≥ 30 kg/m2 (♂, ♀)b 255 13 114 17 141 10 9 11 11 12 12 7 10 10 11
  1. a Mean daily energy intake was 2511 and 1891 kcal among all male and female survey participants, and 2574 and 1953 kcal among male and female regular breakfast eaters, respectively
  2. bCut-offs from the World Health Organization [33]
  3. c The proportions of men and women above the cut-off for waist-to-hip ratio was 44 and 13% among all survey participants, and 45 and 12% among regular breakfast eaters, respectively
  4. dCut-off suggested by Schneider [34], Browning [35] and Ashwell [36] et al.
  5. e Regular breakfast eaters were defined as survey participants who took a breakfast of at least 100 kcal in both of their 24-h dietary recalls and reported eating breakfast at least 5 days in a usual week
  6. Breakfast energy intake was 554 and 424 kcal among male and female regular breakfast eaters, respectively
  7. f In this second part of the table, only proportions, respectively, means for continuous variables, are presented in the 1351 regular breakfast eaters