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Table 3 Longitudinal associations of dietary behaviors throughout childhood (ages 4 to 11 years) with adiposity and estimated insulin resistance in early adolescence (N = 995)

From: Dietary behaviors throughout childhood are associated with adiposity and estimated insulin resistance in early adolescence: a longitudinal study

  Boys Girls
β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c
BMI, Z-Score N = 502 N = 489
Eating breakfast daily −0.22 (− 0.34, − 0.11) − 0.18 (− 0.30, − 0.06) − 0.13 (− 0.24, − 0.02) −0.36 (− 0.48, − 0.24) − 0.19 (− 0.31, − 0.07) − 0.13 (− 0.23, − 0.02)
Family dinner daily − 0.03 (− 0.11, 0.04) −0.01 (− 0.09, 0.06) −0.01 (− 0.09, 0.06) −0.26 (− 0.33, − 0.18) −0.21 (− 0.29, − 0.14) −0.17 (− 0.24, − 0.11)
Fast food restaurant < 1/wk − 0.11 (− 0.19, − 0.03) −0.07 (− 0.15, 0.02) −0.04 (− 0.12, 0.04) −0.29 (− 0.38, − 0.21) −0.19 (− 0.27, − 0.10) −0.09 (− 0.17, − 0.02)
Eating meals while watching television < 1/wk − 0.21 (− 0.29, − 0.13) − 0.16 (− 0.24, − 0.08) − 0.13 (− 0.20, − 0.05) −0.21 (− 0.29, − 0.13) −0.06 (− 0.14, 0.01) −0.03 (− 0.10, 0.04)
Waist circumference, cm N = 504 N = 491
Eating breakfast daily −1.29 (− 2.62, 0.03) − 1.11 (− 2.44, 0.23) − 0.60 (− 1.87, 0.68) −3.98 (−5.21, − 2.74) − 2.29 (− 3.48, − 1.10) − 1.59 (− 2.67, − 0.51)
Family dinner daily 0.06 (− 0.78, 0.91) 0.14 (− 0.69, 0.98) 0.13 (− 0.67, 0.93) − 2.12 (− 2.89, − 1.36) −1.57 (− 2.29, − 0.84) −1.14 (− 1.80, − 0.48)
Fast food restaurant < 1/wk − 0.87 (− 1.80, 0.06) − 0.71 (− 1.64, 0.22) − 0.33 (− 1.22, 0.56) − 3.21 (− 4.07, − 2.34) − 2.17 (− 3.00, − 1.35) −1.23 (− 1.99, − 0.48)
Eating meals while watching television < 1/wk − 2.14 (− 3.01, − 1.27) −1.94 (− 2.82, − 1.07) −1.55 (− 2.39, − 0.71) −2.44 (− 3.25, − 1.64) − 1.04 (− 1.81, − 0.26) − 0.70 (− 1.40, 0.01)
BI whole-body fat, % N = 499 N = 483
Eating breakfast daily −1.94 (− 2.98, − 0.90) −1.38 (− 2.42, − 0.34) − 0.94 (− 1.92, 0.05) −3.63 (− 4.69, − 2.57) −1.98 (− 2.98, − 0.97) −1.47 (− 2.39, − 0.54)
Family dinner daily − 0.08 (− 0.75, 0.58) 0.11 (− 0.54, 0.77) 0.09 (− 0.53, 0.71) − 2.17 (− 2.83, − 1.51) −1.66 (− 2.28, − 1.04) −1.34 (− 1.91, − 0.77)
Fast food restaurant < 1/wk − 0.91 (− 1.64, − 0.18) − 0.46 (− 1.19, 0.27) −0.14 (− 0.82, 0.55) −2.43 (− 3.17, − 1.68) −1.39 (− 2.09, − 0.69) − 0.64 (− 1.29, 0.01)
Eating meals while watching television < 1/wk − 2.09 (− 2.77, − 1.41) −1.66 (− 2.35, − 0.98) −1.33 (− 1.98, − 0.69) −2.32 (− 3.01, − 1.62) −0.98 (− 1.64, − 0.32) −0.74 (− 1.35, − 0.14)
DXA whole-body fat, % N = 355 N = 366
Eating breakfast daily −1.78 (− 2.80, − 0.76) −1.75 (− 2.78, − 0.72) −1.43 (− 2.42, − 0.45) −2.34 (− 3.21, − 1.47) − 1.93 (− 2.77, − 1.09) −1.47 (− 2.25, − 0.68)
Family dinner daily −0.10 (− 0.77, 0.57) −0.04 (− 0.71, 0.63) −0.16 (− 0.80, 0.48) −0.59 (− 1.14, − 0.04) −0.49 (− 1.02, 0.03) −0.29 (− 0.78, 0.19)
Fast food restaurant < 1/wk − 0.07 (− 0.79, 0.65) −0.01 (− 0.73, 0.72) 0.21 (− 0.48, 0.90) −1.78 (− 2.40, − 1.15) −1.28 (− 1.88, − 0.68) −0.89 (− 1.45, − 0.33)
Eating meals while watching television < 1/wk − 1.30 (− 1.99, − 0.62) −1.25 (− 1.94, − 0.55) −1.10 (− 1.77, − 0.44) −0.88 (− 1.46, − 0.30) −0.39 (− 0.95, 0.17) −0.15 (− 0.67, 0.37)
DXA trunk fat mass, kg N = 355 N = 366
Eating breakfast daily −0.65 (− 1.16, − 0.15) −0.57 (− 1.08, − 0.06) −0.40 (− 0.88, 0.08) −1.78 (− 2.26, − 1.29) −1.23 (− 1.69, − 0.78) − 0.92 (− 1.33, − 0.51)
Family dinner daily 0.13 (−0.20, 0.46) 0.16 (− 0.16, 0.49) 0.10 (− 0.21, 0.41) −0.60 (− 0.91, − 0.30) −0.45 (− 0.74, − 0.16) −0.32 (− 0.57, − 0.06)
Fast food restaurant < 1/wk −0.10 (− 0.45, 0.26) −0.01 (− 0.36, 0.35) 0.11 (− 0.22, 0.44) − 1.29 (− 1.64, − 0.94) −0.86 (− 1.19, − 0.53) −0.60 (− 0.90, − 0.31)
Eating meals while watching television < 1/wk −0.71 (− 1.05, − 0.38) −0.63 (− 0.97, − 0.29) −0.56 (− 0.88, − 0.23) −0.74 (− 1.06, − 0.42) −0.31 (− 0.61, 0.00) −0.15 (− 0.42, 0.12)
Trunk to peripheral fat ratio N = 355 N = 366
Eating breakfast daily −0.02 (− 0.04, − 0.01) −0.02 (− 0.04, − 0.01) −0.02 (− 0.03, − 0.01) −0.06 (− 0.08, − 0.05) −0.06 (− 0.07, − 0.04) −0.05 (− 0.06, − 0.03)
Family dinner daily 0.01 (0.00, 0.02) 0.01 (0.00, 0.02) 0.01 (0.00, 0.02) −0.02 (− 0.03, − 0.01) −0.02 (− 0.03, − 0.01) −0.02 (− 0.03, − 0.01)
Fast food restaurant < 1/wk −0.01 (− 0.02, 0.00) −0.01 (− 0.02, 0.00) 0.00 (− 0.01, 0.00) −0.04 (− 0.05, − 0.03) −0.03 (− 0.04, − 0.02) −0.03 (− 0.04, − 0.02)
Eating meals while watching television < 1/wk −0.02 (− 0.03, − 0.01) −0.02 (− 0.03, − 0.01) −0.02 (− 0.03, − 0.01) −0.03 (− 0.04, − 0.02) −0.02 (− 0.03, − 0.01) −0.01 (− 0.02, 0.00)
  % difference (95% CI) % difference (95% CI)
HOMA-IR N = 304 N = 275
Eating breakfast daily −20.1 (− 26.8, − 12.9) −17.7 (− 24.7, − 10.1) − 15.6 (− 22.7, − 7.9) − 17.1 (− 23.8, − 9.7) −9.2 (− 16.5, − 1.2) −7.8 (− 15.1, 0.1)
Family dinner daily −8.0 (− 13.2, − 2.6) −6.8 (− 12.0, − 1.3) −7.3 (− 12.4, − 1.8) −7.0 (− 12.0, − 1.7) − 3.1 (− 8.2, 2.2) − 3.2 (− 8.1, 2.1)
Fast food restaurant < 1/wk − 10.1 (− 15.5, − 4.3) −8.3 (− 13.9, − 2.4) − 7.6 (− 13.2, − 1.7) −13.3 (− 18.5, − 7.7) −8.5 (− 13.8, − 2.8) −6.6 (− 12.0, − 0.9)
Eating meals while watching television < 1/wk − 13.9 (− 18.9, − 8.6) − 11.7 (− 16.8, − 6.2) −10.7 (− 15.8, − 5.2) −3.4 (− 8.8, 2.3) 3.1 (−2.5, 9.1) 3.7 (− 1.8, 9.6)
  1. BMI Body mass index, HOMA-IR Homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, BI Bio-impedance, DXA Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. aAdjusted for child’s age at exposures and outcome (except for BMI Z-Score); bModel 1 additionally adjusted for child race/ethnicity and maternal education, marital status, and parity, cModel 2 additionally adjusted for pre-pregnancy BMI