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Table 9 Median (IQR) grams of food eaten daily by high-DASH consumers of those foods

From: Comparison of individuals with low versus high consumption of home-prepared food in a group with universally high dietary quality: a cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet & Nutrition Survey (2008–2016)

Food group High DASH Coefficient (95% CI)a p-value
High home preparation Low home preparation All
Reduced fat milk 172.5 (88.1, 253.5) 190.0 (105.0, 292.5) 178.8 (96.3, 267.5) 12.4 (−10.0, 34.9) 0.28
Whole milk 52.5 (9.5, 159.2) 25.0 (10.0, 149.3) 50.0 (9.5, 159.2) −5.9 (− 13.6, 1.8) 0.13
Other milk and cream 21.0 (9.6, 62.5) 12.4 (7.5, 30.0) 16.3 (7.5, 48.8) −16.7 (−36.2, 2.7) 0.09
Yogurt, fromage frais and dairy desserts 60.0 (31.3, 93.8) 68.1 (43.8, 100.0) 62.5 (32.5, 100.0) 13.1 (3.0, 23.3) 0.01
Butter 15.0 (7.5, 27.5) 20.0 (10.0, 30.0) 15.0 (9.0, 30.0) 2.6 (−1.4, 6.7) 0.20
Reduced fat spread 8.5 (4.3, 14.6) 11.2 (6.8, 17.0) 10.0 (5.0, 16.3) 2.1 (0.9, 3.4) < 0.01
PUFA margarines and oils 1.9 (0.7, 7.8) 1.4 (0.4, 2.5) 1.5 (0.7, 4.5) −1.3 (−3.1, 0.5) 0.16
Other margarine, fats and oils 2.9 (1.5, 6.2) 1.4 (0.7, 3.0) 2.6 (1.1, 4.8) −1.4 (−2.3, −0.5) < 0.01
Cheese 18.3 (10.0, 30.6) 18.8 (10.0, 32.3) 18.5 (10.0, 31.3) 0.2 (−2.7, 3.0) 0.91
Eggs and egg dishes 30.0 (15.0, 45.0) 28.5 (14.3, 44.3) 28.5 (15.0, 45.0) −4.8 (−8.7, −1.0) 0.01
Brown bread 49.7 (27.6, 72.6) 59.2 (33.5, 89.5) 52.2 (30.0, 82.5) 10.4 (5.3, 15.4) < 0.01
White bread 30.3 (18.0, 52.8) 36.0 (20.0, 73.0) 32.4 (18.7, 61.9) 10.5 (4.8, 16.2) < 0.01
Other bread 24.5 (14.8, 38.6) 29.3 (20.6, 43.0) 25.9 (20.0, 38.8) 7.9 (−4.9, 20.7) 0.23
High fibre breakfast cereals 29.3 (15.0, 54.0) 36.6 (20.0, 66.0) 32.5 (17.5, 59.4) 3.2 (−4.4, 10.7) 0.41
Other breakfast cereals 15.0 (7.5, 27.5) 20.0 (10.0, 30.0) 15.0 (9.0, 30.0) 2.6 (−1.4, 6.7) 0.20
Pasta, rice and other cereals 12.5 (6.3, 25.8) 12.5 (5.8, 24.8) 12.5 (6.3, 25.0) −1.3 (−3.7, 1.2) 0.32
Nuts and seeds 12.5 (5.6, 25.0) 9.7 (6.3, 20.9) 12.5 (5.9, 24.5) −0.9 (−5.9, 4.2) 0.74
Salad and other raw vegetables 56.4 (24.3, 94.6) 63.6 (27.0, 103.4) 60.1 (26.3, 98.6) 6.7 (−1.3, 14.6) 0.10
Vegetables not raw 190.2 (131.9, 259.4) 139.2 (95.0, 183.3) 163.1 (116.3, 232.3) −52.3 (−63.7, −40.9) < 0.01
Fruit 196.0 (132.2, 301.3) 219.4 (145.2, 348.8) 203.9 (134.9, 314.6) 7.5 (−8.0, 23.0) 0.34
Fruit juice 77.5 (31.3, 150.0) 112.5 (50.0, 175.0) 93.8 (37.5, 150.0) 32.3 (14.5, 50.2) < 0.01
Smoothies 100% fruit and/or juice 66.3 (66.3, 198.8) 66.3 (43.5, 95.4) 66.3 (66.3, 95.4) 23.0 (−119.7, 165.7) 0.73
Biscuits, chocolate and candy 14.8 (8.1, 25.0) 20.4 (10.0, 40.0) 17.5 (8.8, 32.8) 11.3 (8.0, 14.6) < 0.01
Ice cream 30.0 (21.3, 50.0) 27.5 (16.3, 50.0) 30.0 (20.0, 50.0) 0.5 (−4.6, 5.5) 0.85
Puddings 35.5 (22.5, 53.1) 27.5 (16.9, 50.0) 30.0 (20.0, 50.0) −0.8 (− 11.2, 9.7) 0.89
Buns, cakes, pastries and fruit pies 24.0 (14.0, 41.3) 30.0 (15.8, 54.5) 27.5 (15.0, 48.0) 5.8 (1.9, 9.7) < 0.01
Sugars, preserves and sweet spreads 12.0 (5.4, 20.2) 9.0 (3.8, 16.9) 11.0 (5.0, 19.6) −0.3 (−2.2, 1.7) 0.78
Crisps and savoury snacks 8.1 (6.3, 13.8) 12.5 (6.3, 18.8) 9.0 (6.3, 17.3) 3.0 (0.9, 5.1) < 0.01
Oily fish 37.5 (25.0, 53.0) 28.1 (16.5, 40.0) 32.3 (22.3, 50.5) −4.2 (−9.7, 1.4) 0.14
White fish breaded or fried 30.0 (25.0, 50.0) 28.0 (25.0, 37.5) 30.0 (25.0, 45.0) −6.2 (−12.3, −0.1) 0.05
Other fish dishes (incl. White fish and shellfish) 30.0 (18.0, 49.0) 28.8 (15.0, 43.3) 30.0 (16.3, 45.0) −3.9 (− 9.4, 1.5) 0.16
Bacon and ham 25.0 (15.0, 48.8) 23.8 (11.3, 31.3) 23.8 (11.3, 32.5) 1.4 (−13.7, 16.5) 0.85
Pork and dishes 30.0 (22.5, 45.0) 30.0 (21.3, 42.8) 30.0 (22.3, 42.8) 1.6 (−3.7, 6.9) 0.55
Sausages 28.4 (15.0, 38.0) 22.5 (15.0, 39.9) 26.2 (15.0, 39.9) −3.6 (−9.2, 2.0) 0.21
Beef, veal and dishes 34.7 (23.4, 53.3) 29.2 (17.5, 39.8) 32.0 (21.0, 50.0) −4.1 (−10.4, 2.1) 0.19
Lamb and dishes 40.0 (25.9, 54.2) 23.5 (19.3, 36.5) 35.0 (22.5, 47.9) −15.5 (−26.8, −4.3) < 0.01
Liver and dishes 20.0 (10.0, 33.2) 20.0 (13.8, 25.6) 20.0 (12.5, 30.0) 1.2 (−5.1, 7.6) 0.70
Chicken and turkey dishes 56.2 (32.5, 83.4) 40.5 (26.3, 65.0) 48.8 (30.0, 77.5) −11.3 (−18.3, −4.3) < 0.01
Coated chicken 100.0 (60.0, 195.0) 95.0 (45.0, 125.0) 95.0 (45.0, 130.0) 6.0 (−51.4, 63.3) 0.84
Burgers and kebabs 25.0 (15.0, 53.8) 37.5 (8.5, 46.9) 25.0 (10.0, 50.0) 3.6 (−9.5, 16.7) 0.58
Meat pies and pastries 30.0 (22.5, 50.0) 37.5 (30.0, 45.8) 35.0 (25.0, 45.8) 0.5 (−9.4, 10.3) 0.92
Other meat and meat products 12.5 (6.3, 25.8) 12.5 (5.8, 24.8) 12.5 (6.3, 25.0) −1.3 (−3.7, 1.2) 0.32
Chips, roasted and fried potatoes 46.0 (25.4, 64.4) 41.3 (25.0, 66.3) 41.3 (25.0, 64.4) −1.4 (−6.8, 4.1) 0.63
Other potato dishes 60.0 (40.0, 93.3) 65.3 (42.5, 110.0) 62.5 (40.5, 101.8) 10.3 (2.6, 18.1) < 0.01
Artificial sweeteners 1.0 (0.5, 2.6) 3.0 (0.9, 4.8) 1.5 (0.5, 3.8) 0.8 (−0.4, 2.0) 0.18
Dietary supplements 1.5 (1.0, 3.0) 2.0 (1.0, 3.0) 1.5 (1.0, 3.0) −0.8 (−2.3, 0.6) 0.25
Tea, coffee and water 1288.4 (952.7, 1625.5) 1248.9 (899.3, 1635.5) 1264.3 (930.5, 1630.8) 15.3 (−64.1, 94.7) 0.71
Soft drinks low calorie 150.0 (82.5, 300.0) 142.0 (75.0, 325.0) 142.0 (75.0, 300.0) 6.7 (−96.1, 109.4) 0.90
Soft drinks not low calorie 100.0 (62.5, 160.8) 85.0 (50.0, 187.5) 91.8 (50.0, 175.0) −15.2 (−53.0, 22.5) 0.43
Beer, lager, cider and perry 165.0 (75.0, 322.9) 310.0 (141.8, 496.1) 225.0 (110.0, 425.3) 176.3 (85.1, 267.5) < 0.01
Wine 102.1 (43.8, 170.0) 129.0 (62.5, 218.8) 118.8 (46.9, 187.5) 27.1 (2.4, 51.7) 0.03
Spirits and liqueurs 21.0 (6.5, 25.9) 22.5 (11.5, 28.8) 22.5 (8.6, 28.8) 1.4 (−4.7, 7.5) 0.65
Miscellaneous 35.8 (14.0, 77.3) 34.3 (13.4, 81.3) 34.8 (13.8, 78.8) −1.0 (−8.3, 6.2) 0.78
  1. aAdjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, children, education, income and occupation
  2. Note: Italics indicate statistical significance (p < 0.05)