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Table 1 Participant characteristics. Baseline physical activity and physical activity measure for studies included in meta-analysis

From: Systematic review and meta-analysis of maintenance of physical activity behaviour change in cancer survivors

Authors and country N Cancer type On treatment Mean age % female % white % higher education Mean number of comorbidities Exclusion based on current activity levels Baseline physical activity (MVPA mins/wk) intervention group Measure of physical activity
Very promising – Significant between group difference   
a Mutrie et al. 2012 [55]
UK
203 Breast cancer Yes 51.6 100 NR NR NR Excluded those who ‘regularly exercised’ 367 Scottish physical activity questionnaire
Pinto et al. 2008 [46]
USA
86 Breast cancer No b53.1 100 b95.5 b81.5 NR Had to be relatively inactive < 20 mins vig or < twice a week of 30 mins moderate 82 7 Day Physical activity recall
Rogers et al. 2015 [57]
USA
222 Breast No 54.4 100 83.8 NR 2.2 Had to be relatively inactive < 30 mins vig or 60 mins mod PA 178 Actigraph
Rogers et al. 2009 [37]
Canada
41 Breast NR 53 100 93 NR NR Excluded if > 150 min mod or > 60 mins vig 96 Actirgraph
Belanger et al. 2014 [40]
Canada
212 Breast, colorectal, other Yes 18-39 yrs 60.8 85 67.5 28.3% > 1 Meta-synthesis Included only those from sub-analysis with baseline PA ≤ 300 mins/wk. at baseline 86 Godin Leisure Time exercise questionnaire
Pinto et al. 2015 [68] USA 76 Breast Yes 55.6 100 98.7 89.5 NR Had to be relatively inactive < 30 mins vig or < 90 mins mod PA 32 7 Day Physical activity recall
Pinto et al. 2013 [56] USA 192 Breast No b56 100 b94 b76 NR Must be relatively inactive (< 30 mins vig or < 90 mins mod/wk) 49 7 Day Physical activity recall
Dhillon et al. 2017 [69]
Australia
112 Lung Yes Median 64 45 NR NR NR    
Baumann et al. 2017 [70]
Germany
194 Breast No b56 b100 NR NR NR    
Hawkes et al. 2013 [39]
Australia
410 Colorectal Yes b66.3 b46.1 NR NR b91% ≥ 1 Had to include 1 poor health behaviour (< 150 mins MVPA/wk., < 2 servings of fruit or < 5 servings of veg, or overweight, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 59 Godin Leisure Time exercise questionnaire
Kanera et al., 2017 [54]
Netherlands
462 Various (70% breast) No b55.9 b79.9 NR 31 0.35    
Witlox et al., 2018 [48]
Netherlands
237 Breast and colon Yes 50.8 91.1 NR 42 NR No exclusions 879 SQUASH
Quite promising - Significant within-group difference baseline to post-intervention follow up  
Demark-Wahnefried et al. 2012 [38]
USA
641 Breast, prostate and colorectal No b73 b55.3 b90 b61.9 NR Baseline physical activity must be < 150 mins MVPA/wk 33.3 CHAMPS
Ottenbacher et al. 2012 [44]
USA
400 Breast and Prostate No b57.6 59.5 85.5 89 2.15 Analysis of N = 400 in larger study were reported < 150 mins MVPA/wk 24 7 Day Physical activity recall
Vallance et al. 2007 [52]
Canada
377 Breast No 58 100 NR NR NR No exclusions 119 Godin Leisure Time exercise questionnaire
Pinto et al. 2013 [45]
USA
46 Colorectal No b57.6 b57 b98 b76.5 NR Had to be relatively inactive < 60 mins of mod or < 20 mins vigorous 38 7-Day Physical activity recall
Leclerc et al. 2018 [71]
Belgium
209 Breast No b53.4 100 NR NR NR    
Mayer et al. 2018 [72]
USA
284 Colon No b58.6 b52 b89 b57 NR    
Lee et al. 2018 [50]
Hong Kong
223 Colorectal N b65.2 b36.8 NR b87.5 Unclear 498 Actigraph
Adams et al. 2018 [42]
Canada
63 Testicular N 43.7 0 90.5 NR NR excluded if performed ‘regular vigorous physical activity 125 Godin Leisure Time exercise questionnaire
Stolley et al. 2017 [73]
USA
246 Breast N 57.5 100 0 76 NR    
Not promising - No between or within group differences      
Galvo et al. 2017 [53]
Australia
463 prostate Yes 64.4 NP 62 NR No exclusion based on PA 126 Godin Leisure Time exercise questionnaire
Nyrop et al. 2017 [41]
USA
62 Breast No 63.8 100 74 77 NR    
Carmack et al. 2006 [51]
USA
134 Prostate Yes 69.2 73 79 65.7% ≥ 2    
James et al. 2015 [43]
Australia c
108 Mixed N No exclusions 84 Active Australia survey
O’Neill et al. 2018 [49]
Ireland
43 Esophagogastric N b65.7 b19 NR NR NR No exclusions 132 Actigraph
Sandler et al. 2017 [47]
Australia
46 Breast and colon N b51.2 b93.6 NR NR NR No exclusions 30 IPAQ
  1. NR not reported aUsed linked texts to extract some sample characteristics bsummed means across 2 groups cdemographic data not available as presented for both cancer patients and carers, SQUASH Short Questionnaire to Assess Health enhancing physical activity, CHAMPS Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors, IPAQ International Physical Activity Questionnaire