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Table 2 Participant, intervention and study characteristics

From: The effects of yoga compared to active and inactive controls on physical function and health related quality of life in older adults- systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Study id Country Participants
(number, mean age (SD))
Intervention group (type, frequency, session duration, length of intervention) Control group(s) Outcome measures
Bezerra (2014) [75] Brazil N = 36
Mean age (SD): yoga group = 63.1 (13.3); control group = 61.0 (6.9) years.
Yoga, 3 times a week, 65 min per session, 12 weeks 1. IC: Control group Physical function: Body weight
Bonura (2014) [63] USA N = 98
Mean age (SD): 77.04 (7.28) years
Chair yoga, 1 session a week, 45 min per session, 24 weeks 1. AC: Chair exercise
2. IC: Wait-list control
HRQoL: Anger, anxiety, depression, well-being, general self-efficacy, self-efficacy for daily living, self-control
Bethany (2005) [55] USA N = 42
Mean age (SD): 83.14 (4.84) years
Chair yoga, 3 times a week, 30 min per session, 6 weeks 1. AC: Chair aerobics
2. AC: Walking programme
3. IC: Game playing
HRQoL: Stress frequency, stress severity, state anxiety, depression, motivational factors to exercise
Chen (2008) [53] Taiwan N = 176
Mean age (SD): Complete Silver Yoga = 65.81 (4.34); Shortened Silver Yoga = 68.08 (6.32); control group = 72.42 (6.04) years
1. Complete Silver Yoga with meditation, 3 times a week, 70 min per session, 24 weeks 2. Shortened Silver Yoga, 3 times a week, 55 min per session, 24 weeks 1. IC: Wait-list control Physical function: Bodyweight, BMI, body fat percentage, lower body flexibility, upper limb strength, lower limb strength, balance, walking speed, range of motion: flexion and abduction of shoulder and hip joints on both sides
Chen (2009) [61] Taiwan N = 128
Mean age (SD): 69.20 (6.23) years
Silver Yoga, 3 times a week, 70 min per session, 24 weeks 1. IC: Wait-list control HRQoL: Sleep quality, depression, perceived mental and physical health
Chen (2010)1 [60] Taiwan N = 55
Mean age (SD): 75.40 (6.70) years
Silver Yoga, 3 times a week, 70 min per session, 24 weeks 1. IC: Wait-list control HRQoL: Sleep quality, depression, perceived mental and physical health
Chen (2010)2 [59] Taiwan N = 55
Mean age (SD): 75.40 (6.70) years
Silver Yoga, 3 times a week, 70 min per session, 24 weeks 1. IC: Wait-listcontrol Physical function: Body weight, BMI, body fat percentage, cardiopulmonary fitness, upper body flexibility, lower body flexibility and range of motion: flexion and abduction of shoulder and hip joints on both sides, upper limb and lower limb muscle strength, balance, and walking speed
Gothe (2016) [91] USA N = 108
Mean age (SD): yoga group = 62.1 (5.82); control group = 62.0 (5.39) years
Hatha yoga, 3 times a week, 60 min per session, 8 weeks 1. AC: Stretching–strengthening control group Physical function: Mobility, upper and lower limb strength, upper and lower body flexibility, balance, walking speed
Gothe (2013) [68] USA N = 108
Mean age (SD): yoga group = 62.1 (5.82); control group = 62.0 (5.39) years
Hatha yoga, 3 times a week, 75 min per session, 8 weeks 1. AC: Stretching–strengthening control group HRQoL: Stress, anxiety
Haber (1983) [70] USA Centre1 N: 51
Mean age: 69 years
Centre1 N: 35
Mean age: 70 years
The Easy Does it Yoga Programme for Older People, 
1 session a week,
Daily home practice encouraged, 10 weeks
1. IC: Control group (film series or art class) HRQoL: Self assessed health status, psychological wellbeing
Haber (1988) [66] USA N = 410
Mean age: 75 years
The Easy Does it Yoga Programme for Older People, 3 times a week, 60 min per session, 10 weeks 1. IC: Control group HRQoL: Self-care, sociability, medication usage
Hariprasad (2013) [74] India N = 87
Mean age (SD): yoga group = 75.74 (6.46); control group = 74.78 (7.35) years
Yoga, daily supervised sessions for 1 month. 1 session per week in the 2nd and 3rd month. Daily home practice following this, 60 min per session, 24 weeks 1. IC: Wait-list control HRQoL: Perceived physical and mental health, sleep
Krishnamurthy (2007) [92]  India N = 50
Mean age (SD): yoga group = 70.1 (8.3); ayurveda = 72.1 (9.0); wait-list = 72.3 (7.4) years
Yoga, 6 times a week, 60 min per session, 24 weeks 1. IC: Ayurveda group (herbal preparation)
2. IC: Wait-list control
Physical function: Balance, mobility
Krishnamurthy (2007)2 [58]
 India
N = 50
Mean age (SD): yoga group = 70.1 (8.3); ayurveda = 72.1 (9.0); wait-list = 72.3 (7.4) years
Yoga, 6 times a week, 60 min per session, 24 weeks 1. IC: Ayurveda group (herbal preparation)
2. IC: Wait-list control
HRQoL: Depression
Leininger (2006) [69] USA N = 82
Mean age (SD): yoga group = 69.6 (6.7); education group = 68.2 (5.4) years
Hatha yoga, 2 supervised sessions a week. Home exercises recommended at least three times a week, 60 min per session, 10 weeks 1. IC: Education control group (on topics of osteoporosis and fitness) Physical function: Balance, lower limb strength,
HRQoL: Balance confidence, vitality
Manjunath (2005) [57] India N = 50
Mean age (SD): yoga group = 70.1 (8.3); ayurveda = 72.1 (9.0); wait-list = 72.3 (7.4) years
Yoga training, 6 times a week, 60 min per session, 24 weeks 1. IC: Ayurveda (herbal preparation)
2. IC: Wait-list control
HRQoL: Sleep quality
Marques (2017) [78] Portugal N = 25
Mean age (SD): 83.16 (7.4) years
Chair based yoga, 2 to 3 times a week, 50 min per session, 28 weeks 1. IC: Control group given education booklet Physical function: Cardio-respiratory fitness, mobility, upper body flexibility
HRQoL: Stress, perceived mental health
Morris (2008) [67] USA N = 18
Mean age (SD): 76.06 (6.35) years
Hatha yoga, 2 times a week, 60 min per session, 8 weeks 1. AC: Balance training exercise
2. IC: Fall risk awareness
Physical function: Balance, fall frequency
HRQoL: Fear of falls, balance confidence
Ni (2014) [56] USA N = 39
Mean age (SD): 74.15 (6.99) years
Balance yoga programme, 2 times a week, 60 min per session, 12 weeks 1. AC: Tai Chi
2. AC: Standard balance programme
Physical function: Mobility, balance, walking speed
Nick (2016) [76] Iran N = 39
Mean age (SD): yoga group = 68 (4.87); control group = 68.79 (4.81) years
Hatha yoga, 2 times per week, 60 min per session, 8 weeks 1. IC: Control group Physical function: Balance
HRQoL: Fear of falls
Noradechanunt (2017) [72] Australia N = 33
Mean age (SD): 67.7 (6.7) years
Thai Yoga, 2 supervised session a week, 80 min per session. Home practice on alternate days for 20 min, 12 weeks 1. AC: Tai Chi
2. IC: Control group
Physical function: Lower and upper limb strength, lower and upper body flexibility, mobility
HRQoL: Perceived physical and mental health, depression
Oken (2006) [64] USA N = 118
Mean age (SD): yoga group = 71.5 (4.9); exercise group = 73.6 (5.1); wait-list = 71.2 (4.4) years
Iyengar yoga, 1 class a week with home practice, 90 min per session, 24 weeks 1. AC: Walking group
2. IC: Wait-list control
Physical function: Lower body flexibility, lower limb strength, balance, walking speed
HRQoL: Mood, fatigue, depression, perceived physical and mental health, pain, general health and well-being, social functioning, vitality
Saravanakumar (2014) [71] Australia N = 33
Mean age (SD): 83.8 (7.9) years
Yoga, 2 times a week, 30 min per session, 14 weeks 1. AC: Tai Chi
2. IC: Usual care
Physical function: Balance, fall incidence,
HRQoL: Pain, quality of life.
Tew (2017) [77] UK N = 47
Mean age (SD): 74.8 (7.2) years
British Wheel of Yoga Gentle Years Yoga programme, 10 sessions during a 12-week period, 75 min. Home practice encouraged for 10–20 min on most days,12 weeks 1. IC: Wait-list control Physical function: Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, lower limb strength, upper and lower body flexibility, balance, walking speed
HRQoL: Perceived mental health, quality of life
Tiedemann (2013) [73] Australia N = 52
Mean age (SD): 68 years (7.1) years
Iyengar yoga, 2 session a week, 60 min. Home practice 2 days a week for 10–20 min, 12 weeks 1. IC: Control group given fall prevention education booklet Physical function: Balance, lower limb strength, walking speed
HRQoL: Fear of falls
Vogler (2011) [39] Australia N = 38
Mean age (SD): 73.21 (8.38) years
Iyengar yoga, 2 times per week, 90 min per session. Home practice 3 days per week for 15–20 min, 8 weeks 1. IC: Wait-list control group Physical function: Muscle strength, range of motion of the upper extremity, hip flexion, hip extension, hip abduction, and trunk rotation
HRQoL: General health and well-being, perceived physical and mental health
Wang (2010) [65] USA N = 18
Mean age (SD): 74.9 (8.4) years
Yoga group, 2 times per week, 60 min per session, 4 weeks 1. IC: Social group Physical function: Balance, lower limb strength, lower body flexibility
HRQoL: Depression, morale, hope, social isolation
  1. HRQoL: health related quality of life; BMI: Body Mass Index; AC: Active control; IC: Inactive control; N: Number of participants analysed in included studies