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Table 4 The relationship between dental status and daily micronutrient intakes

From: The impact of dental status on perceived ability to eat certain foods and nutrient intakes in older adults: cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008–2014

     Unadjusted Adjustedb
Nutrient Dental status Mean SD Mean difference 95% CI P Mean difference 95% CI P
Retinol μg/da DEN 339.30 218.15, 443.08 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 354.27 215.00, 465.56 −1.01 − 1.15, 1.12 0.834 1.07 −1.05, 1.21 0.239
E-DEN 334.76 216.15, 465.71 1.04 −1.08, 1.18 0.495 1.04 −1.09, 1.18 0.509
β-carotene μg/da DEN 2364.80 1403.04, 4231.63 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 2099.42 1182.22, 3723.48 −1.13 − 1.29, 1.00 0.081 −1.09 − 1.24, 1.05 0.214
E-DEN 1637.74 718.21, 3724.93 1.44 −1.65, − 1.26 < 0.001 − 1.28 −1.48, − 1.11 0.001
Vitamin B6 mg/d DEN 2.04 0.78 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 1.93 0.66 −0.12 − 0.22, − 0.01 0.037 −0.06 − 0.14, 0.03 0.223
E-DEN 1.87 0.78 −0.17 − 0.28, − 0.06 0.002 −0.04 − 0.14, 0.06 0.421
Vitamin B12 μg/da DEN 5.16 3.65, 7.15 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 5.21 3.76, 6.88 1.01 1.06, 1.08 0.853 1.03 −1.03, 1.10 0.513
E-DEN 4.70 3.49, 5.99 −1.08 − 1.16, − 1.01 0.028 − 1.02 − 1.10, 1.05 0.307
Folate μg/d DEN 261.85 100.67 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 246.95 82.59 −14.90 −28.30, − 1.49 0.029 − 5.69 − 17.01, 5.64 0.325
E-DEN 219.17 88.35 −42.67 −56.26, − 29.09 < 0.001 − 20.48 − 32.74, − 8.23 0.001
Vitamin C mg/d DEN 84.10 49.21 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 81.50 47.32 −2.60 −9.40, 4.21 0.454 0.82 −5.59, 7.23 0.801
E-DEN 63.33 42.41 −20.77 − 27.66, − 13.87 < 0.001 − 9.34 −16.28, − 2.41 0.008
Vitamin D μg/da DEN 2.83 3.65, 7.15 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 2.69 3.76, 6.88 −1.04 −1.12, 1.03 0.282 −1.01 −1.08, 1.06 0.790
E-DEN 2.39 1.62, 3.65 −1.14 − 1.22, − 1.06 < 0.001 − 1.06 − 1.13, 1.02 0.120
Iron mg/d DEN 10.36 3.25 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 10.01 3.25 −0.36 −0.82, 0.11 0.136 0.02 −0.32, 0.37 0.893
E-DEN 9.03 3.13 −1.34 −1.81, − 0.86 < 0.001 − 0.35 − 0.73, 0.02 0.065
Calcium mg/d DEN 826.60 291.27 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 841.95 285.93 15.35 −26.73, 57.43 0.474 34.97 2.40, 67.53 0.035
E-DEN 765.47 275.20 −61.13 − 103.77, −18.49 0.005 −5.17 −40.41, 30.07 0.773
Magnesium mg/d DEN 251.99 75.09 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 241.73 75.90 −10.26 −20.95, 0.43 0.060 −0.59 −7.99, 6.81 0.876
E-DEN 207.96 68.91 −44.03 −54.87, −33.20 < 0.001 −17.72 −25.73, −9.71 < 0.001
Potassium mg/d DEN 2725.90 789.24 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 2772.58 799.12 −99.94 − 211.69, 11.80 0.080 0.19 −77.98, 78.35 0.996
E-DEN 2448.16 753.88 − 424.36 − 537.58, − 311.14 < 0.001 − 151.27 − 235.85, −66.70 < 0.001
Iodine μg/d DEN 187.44 95.70 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 180.88 78.63 −6.56 −19.07, 5.95 0.304 −1.40 − 12.75, 9.95 0.808
E-DEN 167.95 77.66 −19.50 −32.17, − 6.82 0.003 −5.22 − 17.50, 7.06 0.405
  1. Data analysed using multiple regression. Data presented as means (SD), and unadjusted and adjusted differences in means (95% CI). aVariables were naturally logged transformed for analysis, and presented as geometric means (IQRs), and ratio of the geometric means (95% CIs). DEN group was fixed as the reference category in each model. bAdjusted for age, gender, SES (low, med & high), living status (living alone or not living alone), energy intake (kJ/d), survey year and smoking status (current smoker, past regular smoker & never smoked).