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Table 3 Odds ratios for often or sometimes using the Guideline Daily Amounts*

From: Understanding and use of food labeling systems among Whites and Latinos in the United States and among Mexicans: Results from the International Food Policy Study, 2017

  Total sample (N = 19,534) White (n = 6848) Latino (n = 2009) Mexican (n = 10,686)
% OR [95% CI] % OR [95% CI] % OR [95% CI] % OR [95% CI]
Labelling Scheme (Ref. NFT)
 Guideline Daily Amounts 86 0.48 [0.41–0.55]*** 89 0.10 [0.07–0.14]*** 91 0.53 [0.32–0.88]** 84 0.93 [0.78–1.11]
Ethnicity (Ref. Latino)
 White 90 0.80 [0.50–1.28]
 Mexican 82 0.33 [0.22–0.51]***
Sex (Ref. Man)
 Woman 87 1.28 [1.06–1.54]*** 92 1.59 [1.19–2.13]*** 90 0.84 [0.47–1.50] 83 1.28 [0.99–1.66]
Age (years)   1.01 [1.00–1.02]**   1.01 [1.00–1.02]   1.01 [0.98–1.03]   1.00 [0.99–1.01]
Survey language (Ref. English)
 Spanish 56 1.32 [0.73–2.39] 67 1.52 [0.86–2.69]
Education (Ref. High-school or lower)
 Technical studies 85 1.36 [1.01–1.84]* 91 1.53 [0.97–2.40] 90 1.43 [0.70–2.94] 78 1.28 [0.83–1.98]
 Bachelor’s degree or higher 87 1.64 [1.30–2.08]*** 91 1.51 [1.03–2.21]* 93 1.30 [0.70–2.41] 84 1.90 [1.35–2.66]***
Income adequacy (Ref. Difficult)
 Neither easy nor difficult 85 1.28 [1.03–1.59] 90 0.99 [0.67–1.47] 90 1.46 [0.78–2.73] 82 1.23 [0.93–1.62]
 Easy 90 1.42 [1.12–1.80]** 91 1.10 [0.75–1.61] 92 1.31 [0.69–2.47] 87 1.43 [1.01–2.02]*
Occupation (Ref. Unemployed)
 Part time worker or student 86 0.95 [0.75–1.22] 90 1.22 [0.85–1.76] 92 0.27 [0.14–0.52]*** 83 0.94 [0.64–1.38]
 Worker or student 86 1.03 [0.83–1.28] 90 0.93 [0.63–1.35] 92 0.71 [0.38–1.34] 82 1.05 [0.79–1.40]
BMI (Ref. Normal weight)
 Overweight 86 0.86 [0.70–1.06] 89 0.75 [0.55–1.03 92 1.51 [0.79–2.88 83 0.91 [0.69–1.21]
 Obesity 85 0.84 [0.66–1.06] 91 1.06 [0.74–1.51] 90 1.25 [0.63–2.45 79 0.66 [0.47–0.93]*
Nutrition Knowledge (Ref. Not knowledgeable)
 Somewhat Knowledgeable 87 2.43 [1.99–2.97]*** 91 1.64 [1.18–2.29]** 90 1.64 [0.90–2.98] 91 3.26 [2.49–4.28]***
 Knowledgeable 93 3.45 [2.63–4.52]*** 93 1.91 [1.32–2.76]*** 92 2.33 [1.10–4.91]* 93 7.29 [4.57–11.61]***
Calorie count (Ref. Never)
 Sometimes 94 5.49 [4.40–6.85]*** 93 2.33 [1.72–3.15]*** 95 3.95 [2.09–7.49]*** 94 11.73 [8.25–16.68]***
 Most of the time 95 4.67 [2.90–7.54]*** 96 3.42 [1.84–6.35]*** 93 3.16 [1.14–8.81]* 94 6.62 [3.02–14.49]***
Food shopping (Ref. Yes)
 No 80 0.56 [0.41–0.75]** 89 0.96 [0.61–1.49] 84 0.68 [0.27–1.72] 73 0.38 [0.25–0.59]***
 Share 84 0.77 [0.62–0.96] 89 0.97 [0.70–1.34] 89 0.75 [0.37–1.53] 80 0.73 [0.55–0.97]*
  1. OR Odds Ratio, 95% CI 95% Confidence Intervals
  2. Mixed models were adjusted for sex, age, survey language, education, income adequacy, occupation, BMI, nutrition knowledge, calorie count, and food shopping in household
  3. Significance levels: P value * < 0.05, ** < 0.01,*** < 0.001
  4. *Data were weighted using survey weights