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Table 8 Characteristics of included articles (n = 35)

From: Nudging to move: a scoping review of the use of choice architecture interventions to promote physical activity in the general population

Characteristic Number of articles Percent
Geographical region
 UK 10 31
 Online 8 20
 USA 7 17
 Hong Kong 2 6
 Japan 1 3
 Denmark 1 3
 Sweden 1 3
 Germany 1 3
 Belgium 1 3
 South Africa 1 3
 Spain 1 3
 France 1 3
 Singapore 1 3
Setting (multiple settings possible)
 Train station/underground train station 12 34
 Mall/shopping mall 10 29
 Airport 4 11
 Pedestrian transit system 2 6
 Library (public building) 2 6
 Bus station 1 3
 Online only 8 23
Study design
 Observational study 21 60
 Experimental study 4 11
 2 × 2 Post-test study 1 3
 Interrupted time-series design 1 3
 Randomised controlled trial 2 6
 Interviews 1 3
 Quasi-experimental 3 9
 Cross-sectional survey 1 3
 Not specified 1 3
Intervention aim
 Increased stair use 27 77
 Increase in exercise commitment 3 9
 PA in general 4 11
 Walking (step count) 1 3
Intervention level (micro, meso, macro)
 Micro 35 100
Choice-architecture category (Taxonomy following Münscher et al. 2016; multiple categories possible)
 A. Decision information category
  A1 Translation information (e.g. framing techniques) 3 9
  A2 Making information visible 3 9
  A3 Provide social reference points 2 6
 B. Decision structure
  B1 Change choice defaults 30 86
  B2 Change option-related effort 0 0
  B3 Change range or composition of option 0 0
  B4 Change option consequences 6 17
 C. Decision assistance
  C1 Provide reminders 1 3
  C2 Facilitate commitment 3 9