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Table 1 Sample characteristics (N = 5053)

From: Evaluation of a voluntary nutritional information program versus calorie labelling on menus in Canadian restaurants: a quasi-experimental study design

  Overall (N = 5053) Calorie labelling on menus (n = 1244) Informed Dining program (n = 1533) No labelling (n = 2276) X2 (p-value)
% (n) % (n) % (n) % (n)  
Gender      12.1 (p = 0.002)
 Male 61.8% (3125) 63.1% (785) 58.3% (893) 63.6% (1447)  
 Female 38.2% (1928) 36.9% (459) 41.7% (640) 36.4% (829)  
Age group      321.22, (p < 0.001)
 18–29 years 35.3% (1784) 40.1% (499) 28.0% (429) 37.6% (856)  
 30–49 years 32.5% (1630) 32.6% (405) 28.6% (438) 34.6% (787)  
 50 + years 23.6% (1192) 35.7% (320) 34.5% (376) 21.8% (496)  
 Not stated / missing 8.8(447) 1.6% (20) 18.9% (290) 6.0% (137)  
Education level      23.73 (p < 0.001)
 High school or less 27.4% (1383) 26.8% (334) 23.8% (365) 30.1% (684)  
 Some additional training 27.5% (1390) 27.1% (337) 27.2% (417) 27.9% (636)  
 Higher education 45.1% (2280) 46.1% (573) 27.9% (636) 42.0% (956)  
Income quartile      37.35 (p < 0.001)
 Low 21.9% (1106) 22.5% (279) 19.0% (292) 23.5% (535)  
 Low to moderate 19.8% (998) 18.8% (234) 19.5% (299) 20.4% (465)  
 Moderate to high 21.3% (1074) 22.6% (281) 22.1% (339) 19.9% (454)  
 High 22.2% (1120) 22.1% (275) 26.0% (399) 19.6% (446)  
 Not stated 14.9% (755) 14.1% (175) 13.3% (204) 16.5% (376)  
Race      20.59 (p < 0.001)
 White 58.7% (2966) 54.9% (683) 60.7% (931) 59.4% (1352)  
 Other 39.0% (1970) 43.5% (541) 36.2% (555) 38.4% (874)  
 Not stated / Missing 2.3% (117) 1.6% (20) 3.1% (47) 2.2% (50)  
BMI      231.87 (p < 0.001)
 Underweight 2.9% (147) 3.1% (39) 2.5% (38) 3.1% (70)  
 Normal weight 41.5% (2097) 46.3% (576) 35.7% (547) 42.8% (974)  
 Overweight 27.0% (1365) 30.5% (380) 23.8% (365) 27.2% (620)  
 Obese 12.9% (654) 14.5% (180) 11.8% (181) 12.9% (293)  
 Not stated 15.6% (790) 5.5% (69) 26.2% (402) 14.0% (319)