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Table 1 Baseline demographics and health-related characteristics of participants in the four designated groups

From: Individualized home-based exercise and nutrition interventions improve frailty in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

CharacteristicsTotal naControl
(n = 80)
Exercise
(n = 79)
Nutrition
(n = 83)
Combination
(n = 77)
p-values
Age (years)31972.5 ± 5.572.0 ± 6.070.4 ± 5.371.6 ± 6.00.101
Sex (women)31929 (36.3)33 (41.8)38 (45.8)27 (35.1)0.474
Education (>  6 years)31945 (56.3)42 (53.2)45 (54.2)44 (57.1)0.957
ADL dependency (<  60 points)3190 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (1.2)1 (1.3)0.740
GDS (scores)3192.2 ± 1.72.5 ± 1.82.6 ± 1.92.4 ± 1.60.441
SF-12 MCS (scores)31853.8 ± 7.953.9 ± 8.153.4 ± 7.855.8 ± 7.00.404
MMSE (scores)31927.7 ± 1.927.6 ± 2.327.4 ± 2.227.6 ± 2.40.781
BMI (kg/m2)31925.1 ± 3.525.1 ± 3.325.5 ± 3.424.4 ± 3.70.293
Handgrip strength (kg)31825.0 ± 7.824.5 ± 7.724.9 ± 9.226.9 ± 8.50.275
10-m gait speed (seconds)31910. 7 ± 3.212.5 ± 7.713.0 ± 7.411.4 ± 4.30.103
Upper body flexibility (cm)298−13.9 ± 12.3− 12.9 ± 16.7−13.2 ± 12.0− 12.4 ± 12.50.699
Lower body flexibility (cm)304−4.6 ± 8.9− 2.9 ± 8.5−5.2 ± 8.1−3.3 ± 7.60.015
Lower extremity strength (number)2641.6 ± 3.03.9 ± 5.22.0 ± 3.33.8 ± 4.3<  0.001
Frailty score3191.5 ± 0.61.6 ± 0.81.7 ± 0.81.5 ± 0.70.687
Frailty status319    0.287
 Pre-frail 74 (92.5)68 (86.1)72 (86.7)72 (93.5) 
 Frail 6 (7.5)11 (13.9)11 (13.3)5 (6.5) 
Frailty five indicators
 Weight loss ≥3 kg31827 (33.8)23 (29.1)24 (28.9)21 (27.6)0.846
 Exhaustion31956 (70.0)55 (69.6)63 (75.9)57 (74.0)0.766
 Poor muscle strength31826 (32.5)28 (35.4)23 (28.1)21 (27.3)0.649
 Slowness3198 (10.0)13 (16.5)17 (20.5)11 (14.3)0.310
 Low physical activity3164 (5.0)9 (11.5)11 (13.4)7 (9.2)0.309
Comorbidity
 Hypertension31852 (65.0)51 (64.6)58 (69.9)56 (73.7)0.567
 Diabetes mellitus31828 (35.0)39 (49.4)24 (28.9)20 (26.3)0.012
 Myocardial infraction3180 (0.0)1 (1.3)0 (0.0)1 (1.3)0.367
 Stroke3187 (8.8)13 (16.5)6 (7.2)6 (7.9)0.183
 Cancer3182 (2.5)4 (5.1)2 (2.4)1 (1.3)0.581
  1. The data are expressed as mean ± SD or n (%)
  2. ADL activities of daily living; GDS Geriatric Depression Scale; SF-12 MCS 12-Item Short Form Health Survey mental component summary; MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination; BMI body mass index
  3. aParticipants with available information