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Table 2 Intervention effects on frailty score during the 6-month study period

From: Individualized home-based exercise and nutrition interventions improve frailty in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

 Mean ± SDDifference in difference: change from baseline in each intervention group minus change from baseline in control group (95% CI)p for groups × time interactionp for groupsp for time
OutcomeControlExerciseNutritionCombinationExerciseNutritionCombination
Frailty score (scores)n80798377   <  0.0010.402<  0.001
Baseline1.5 ± 0.61.6 ± 0.81.7 ± 0.81.5 ± 0.7      
1 month1.4 ± 0.81.4 ± 0.81.7 ± 0.91.3 ± 0.8−0.06 (−0.24, 0.11)0.10 (− 0.08, 0.28)− 0.07(− 0.25, 0.11)   
3 months1.3 ± 0.81.5 ± 0.91.4 ± 0.91.3 ± 0.70.11 (− 0.07, 0.29)− 0.06 (− 0.24, 0.11)− 0.03 (− 0.21, 0.15)   
6 months1.4 ± 0.91.3 ± 0.91.3 ± 0.91.1 ± 0.8− 0.23 (− 0.41, − 0.05)a−0.28 (− 0.46, − 0.11)a−0.34 (− 0.52, − 0.16)a   
  1. CI confidence interval; aPairwise comparisons (interventions vs. control) were significant at the post hoc significance level of 0.017