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Table 3 The changes of calorie, protein, carbohydrate, and fat, and changes in servings of the six food groups during the 6-month study period

From: Individualized home-based exercise and nutrition interventions improve frailty in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

Dietary compliance variables   Mean ± SD p for main effectsa
Control Exercise Nutrition Combination Exercise statusb Nutrition statusc
  n 80 78 83 74   
Total energy
(Kcal/day)
Baseline 1706.5 ± 435.8 1623.9 ± 480.6 1696.2 ± 485.4 1772.2 ± 462.2 0.945 0.210
Changed at 1 month 48.5 ± 294.3 13.7 ± 272.3 138.1 ± 324.5 186.2 ± 336.5 0.853 <  0.001
Change at 3 months 52.5 ± 293.6 24.1 ± 311.3 170.1 ± 358.8 162.0 ± 311.2 0.612 <  0.001
Change at 6 months − 0.1 ± 277.2 −35.7 ± 342.8 102.1 ± 391.3 142.8 ± 327.1 0.951 <  0.001
Total protein
(g/day)
Baseline 64.9 ± 18.6 60.8 ± 19.8 62.7 ± 18.2 64.8 ± 19.0 0.628 0.705
Change at 1 month −1.0 ± 14.1 0.4 ± 13.0 8.7 ± 18.8 9.6 ± 16.7 0.523 <  0.001
Change at 3 months − 0.2 ± 12.2 2.3 ± 12.1 9.2 ± 17.2 8.7 ± 16.3 0.549 <  0.001
Change at 6 months −2.2 ± 12.4 − 1.3 ± 13.0 7.2 ± 18.5 8.6 ± 16.9 0.521 <  0.001
Total protein
(% in total energy)
Baseline 15.5 ± 2.7 14.9 ± 2.7 14.9 ± 2.4 14.8 ± 2.7 0.298 0.241
Change at 1 month − 0.4 ± 3.1 0.1 ± 2.5 0.6 ± 2.5 0.5 ± 2.3 0.556 0.017
Change at 3 months − 0.5 ± 2.6 0.5 ± 2.8 0.6 ± 2.2 0.5 ± 2.4 0.090 0.034
Change at 6 months − 0.4 ± 2.7 0.1 ± 2.8 0.8 ± 2.3 0.7 ± 2.4 0.484 0.003
Total carbohydrate (g/day) Baseline 225.5 ± 64.6 215.7 ± 64.8 220.9 ± 60.9 229.5 ± 71.3 0.937 0.562
Change at 1 month 8.7 ± 40.3 3.1 ± 43.4 16.2 ± 48.7 12.5 ± 42.9 0.351 0.089
Change at 3 months 6.1 ± 35.4 0.9 ± 50.8 17.7 ± 46.9 13.1 ± 39.3 0.319 0.016
Change at 6 months 0.7 ± 40.3 −5.7 ± 52.8 10.0 ± 44.9 13.6 ± 46.0 0.784 0.007
Total carbohydrate
(% in total energy)
Baseline 53.7 ± 9.3 53.5 ± 8.4 52.6 ± 7.9 52.2 ± 10.0 0.774 0.253
Change at 1 month 0.3 ± 7.2 − 0.1 ± 6.4 −0.9 ± 6.8 − 3.0 ± 6.9 0.105 0.010
Change at 3 months −0.7 ± 6.3 −1.0 ± 7.6 −1.6 ± 7.6 −2.2 ± 6.6 0.514 0.188
Change at 6 months 0.2 ± 7.0 − 0.8 ± 7.7 −1.3 ± 7.5 −1.8 ± 7.2 0.333 0.124
Total fat
(g/day)
Baseline 59.2 ± 26.3 58.7 ± 24.8 63.1 ± 27.9 65.9 ± 29.5 0.722 0.074
Change at 1 month 1.8 ± 22.5 0 ± 16.6 5.2 ± 20.6 11.3 ± 23.1 0.361 0.002
Change at 3 months 4.0 ± 22.1 1.1 ± 18.1 8.0 ± 24.3 8.5 ± 20.9 0.630 0.021
Change at 6 months −0.5 ± 21.5 −0.6 ± 20.4 4.7 ± 24.3 6.4 ± 21.0 0.738 0.015
Total fat
(% in total energy)
Baseline 30.9 ± 8.9 31.6 ± 7.5 32.5 ± 8 33.0 ± 9.9 0.540 0.124
Change at 1 month 0.1 ± 7.3 0 ± 6.1 0.3 ± 7.0 2.5 ± 7.0 0.166 0.095
Change at 3 months 1.2 ± 6.6 0.5 ± 7.1 1.0 ± 7.6 1.7 ± 6.9 0.963 0.578
Change at 6 months 0.2 ± 7.4 0.7 ± 7.5 0.5 ± 7.2 1.2 ± 7.5 0.473 0.633
Whole grains
(bowls/day)
Baseline 2.9 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 1.0 2.8 ± 1.0 2.9 ± 1.0 0.989 0.844
Changed at 1 month 0.12 ± 0.7 0.05 ± 0.6 0.05 ± 0.8 0.02 ± 0.58 0.468 0.512
Change at 3 months 0.02 ± 0.5 −0.04 ± 0.7 0.08 ± 0.7 0.02 ± 0.53 0.356 0.390
Change at 6 months − 0.05 ± 0.6 −0.13 ± 0.7 0.004 ± 0.6 0.04 ± 0.64 0.758 0.115
Beans/fish/meat/eggs
(servings/day)
Baseline 5.2 ± 2.3 4.7 ± 2.3 4.6 ± 2.0 4.8 ± 1.9 0.534 0.252
Change at 1 month − 0.3 ± 2.2 − 0.1 ± 1.7 0.6 ± 2.2 0.7 ± 1.8 0.445 <  0.001
Change at 3 months −0.2 ± 1.7 0.1 ± 1.6 0.5 ± 1.8 0.6 ± 1.9 0.411 0.001
Change at 6 months −0.4 ± 1.7 −0.3 ± 1.8 0.5 ± 1.9 0.6 ± 1.8 0.612 <  0.001
Vegetables
(servings/day)
Baseline 3.0 ± 1.6 2.9 ± 2.0 3.4 ± 1.9 3.4 ± 1.9 0.905 0.024
Change at 1 month 0.2 ± 1.4 0.2 ± 1.3 0 ± 1.6 0.4 ± 1.4 0.233 0.753
Change at 3 months 0.3 ± 1.3 0.3 ± 1.7 0.2 ± 1.6 0.3 ± 1.6 0.908 0.710
Change at 6 months 0.2 ± 1.4 0.1 ± 1.9 0 ± 1.9 0.3 ± 1.6 0.589 0.936
Fruits
(servings/day)
Baseline 1.8 ± 1.2 1.5 ± 0.9 1.7 ± 1.2 1.8 ± 1.5 0.460 0.325
Change at 1 month 0 ± 1.1 0 ± 1.1 0.4 ± 1.2 0.4 ± 1.1 0.877 0.004
Change at 3 months 0 ± 1.2 0.1 ± 1.1 0.3 ± 1.2 0.4 ± 1.2 0.475 0.035
Change at 6 months 0.1 ± 1.2 0.2 ± 1.4 0.2 ± 1.2 0.5 ± 1.2 0.167 0.130
Dairy
(mugs/day)
Baseline 0.3 ± 0.5 0.3 ± 0.4 0.4 ± 0.6 0.4 ± 0.5 0.805 0.231
Change at 1 month 0 ± 0.3 0 ± 0.3 0.2 ± 0.6 0.2 ± 0.5 0.853 <  0.001
Change at 3 months 0 ± 0.4 0.1 ± 0.3 0.3 ± 0.6 0.2 ± 0.5 0.522 <  0.001
Change at 6 months 0.1 ± 0.4 0.1 ± 0.3 0.3 ± 0.6 0.1 ± 0.6 0.324 0.007
Oils/Nuts
(portions/day)
Baseline 6.4 ± 3.1 6.4 ± 2.8 6.7 ± 3.2 7.1 ± 3.5 0.623 0.141
Change at 1 month 0.1 ± 2.9 0.2 ± 2.2 1.1 ± 2.7 1.6 ± 2.5 0.328 <  0.001
Change at 3 months 0.4 ± 2.7 0.3 ± 2.6 1.6 ± 3.4 1.3 ± 2.6 0.615 <  0.001
Change at 6 months − 0.1 ± 3.0 0.1 ± 2.5 0.6 ± 3.4 1.0 ± 2.9 0.413 0.024
  1. aThere are no significant interactions between the exercise and nutrition groups for all variables; bTest for differences based on the exercise intervention status (average of the exercise group and the combination group compared with average of the control group and the nutrition group); cTest for differences based on the nutrition intervention status (average of the nutrition group and the combination group compared with average of the control group and the exercise group); dChange from baseline