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Table 3 The changes of calorie, protein, carbohydrate, and fat, and changes in servings of the six food groups during the 6-month study period

From: Individualized home-based exercise and nutrition interventions improve frailty in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

Dietary compliance variables Mean ± SDp for main effectsa
ControlExerciseNutritionCombinationExercise statusbNutrition statusc
 n80788374  
Total energy
(Kcal/day)
Baseline1706.5 ± 435.81623.9 ± 480.61696.2 ± 485.41772.2 ± 462.20.9450.210
Changed at 1 month48.5 ± 294.313.7 ± 272.3138.1 ± 324.5186.2 ± 336.50.853<  0.001
Change at 3 months52.5 ± 293.624.1 ± 311.3170.1 ± 358.8162.0 ± 311.20.612<  0.001
Change at 6 months− 0.1 ± 277.2−35.7 ± 342.8102.1 ± 391.3142.8 ± 327.10.951<  0.001
Total protein
(g/day)
Baseline64.9 ± 18.660.8 ± 19.862.7 ± 18.264.8 ± 19.00.6280.705
Change at 1 month−1.0 ± 14.10.4 ± 13.08.7 ± 18.89.6 ± 16.70.523<  0.001
Change at 3 months− 0.2 ± 12.22.3 ± 12.19.2 ± 17.28.7 ± 16.30.549<  0.001
Change at 6 months−2.2 ± 12.4− 1.3 ± 13.07.2 ± 18.58.6 ± 16.90.521<  0.001
Total protein
(% in total energy)
Baseline15.5 ± 2.714.9 ± 2.714.9 ± 2.414.8 ± 2.70.2980.241
Change at 1 month− 0.4 ± 3.10.1 ± 2.50.6 ± 2.50.5 ± 2.30.5560.017
Change at 3 months− 0.5 ± 2.60.5 ± 2.80.6 ± 2.20.5 ± 2.40.0900.034
Change at 6 months− 0.4 ± 2.70.1 ± 2.80.8 ± 2.30.7 ± 2.40.4840.003
Total carbohydrate (g/day)Baseline225.5 ± 64.6215.7 ± 64.8220.9 ± 60.9229.5 ± 71.30.9370.562
Change at 1 month8.7 ± 40.33.1 ± 43.416.2 ± 48.712.5 ± 42.90.3510.089
Change at 3 months6.1 ± 35.40.9 ± 50.817.7 ± 46.913.1 ± 39.30.3190.016
Change at 6 months0.7 ± 40.3−5.7 ± 52.810.0 ± 44.913.6 ± 46.00.7840.007
Total carbohydrate
(% in total energy)
Baseline53.7 ± 9.353.5 ± 8.452.6 ± 7.952.2 ± 10.00.7740.253
Change at 1 month0.3 ± 7.2− 0.1 ± 6.4−0.9 ± 6.8− 3.0 ± 6.90.1050.010
Change at 3 months−0.7 ± 6.3−1.0 ± 7.6−1.6 ± 7.6−2.2 ± 6.60.5140.188
Change at 6 months0.2 ± 7.0− 0.8 ± 7.7−1.3 ± 7.5−1.8 ± 7.20.3330.124
Total fat
(g/day)
Baseline59.2 ± 26.358.7 ± 24.863.1 ± 27.965.9 ± 29.50.7220.074
Change at 1 month1.8 ± 22.50 ± 16.65.2 ± 20.611.3 ± 23.10.3610.002
Change at 3 months4.0 ± 22.11.1 ± 18.18.0 ± 24.38.5 ± 20.90.6300.021
Change at 6 months−0.5 ± 21.5−0.6 ± 20.44.7 ± 24.36.4 ± 21.00.7380.015
Total fat
(% in total energy)
Baseline30.9 ± 8.931.6 ± 7.532.5 ± 833.0 ± 9.90.5400.124
Change at 1 month0.1 ± 7.30 ± 6.10.3 ± 7.02.5 ± 7.00.1660.095
Change at 3 months1.2 ± 6.60.5 ± 7.11.0 ± 7.61.7 ± 6.90.9630.578
Change at 6 months0.2 ± 7.40.7 ± 7.50.5 ± 7.21.2 ± 7.50.4730.633
Whole grains
(bowls/day)
Baseline2.9 ± 1.12.8 ± 1.02.8 ± 1.02.9 ± 1.00.9890.844
Changed at 1 month0.12 ± 0.70.05 ± 0.60.05 ± 0.80.02 ± 0.580.4680.512
Change at 3 months0.02 ± 0.5−0.04 ± 0.70.08 ± 0.70.02 ± 0.530.3560.390
Change at 6 months− 0.05 ± 0.6−0.13 ± 0.70.004 ± 0.60.04 ± 0.640.7580.115
Beans/fish/meat/eggs
(servings/day)
Baseline5.2 ± 2.34.7 ± 2.34.6 ± 2.04.8 ± 1.90.5340.252
Change at 1 month− 0.3 ± 2.2− 0.1 ± 1.70.6 ± 2.20.7 ± 1.80.445<  0.001
Change at 3 months−0.2 ± 1.70.1 ± 1.60.5 ± 1.80.6 ± 1.90.4110.001
Change at 6 months−0.4 ± 1.7−0.3 ± 1.80.5 ± 1.90.6 ± 1.80.612<  0.001
Vegetables
(servings/day)
Baseline3.0 ± 1.62.9 ± 2.03.4 ± 1.93.4 ± 1.90.9050.024
Change at 1 month0.2 ± 1.40.2 ± 1.30 ± 1.60.4 ± 1.40.2330.753
Change at 3 months0.3 ± 1.30.3 ± 1.70.2 ± 1.60.3 ± 1.60.9080.710
Change at 6 months0.2 ± 1.40.1 ± 1.90 ± 1.90.3 ± 1.60.5890.936
Fruits
(servings/day)
Baseline1.8 ± 1.21.5 ± 0.91.7 ± 1.21.8 ± 1.50.4600.325
Change at 1 month0 ± 1.10 ± 1.10.4 ± 1.20.4 ± 1.10.8770.004
Change at 3 months0 ± 1.20.1 ± 1.10.3 ± 1.20.4 ± 1.20.4750.035
Change at 6 months0.1 ± 1.20.2 ± 1.40.2 ± 1.20.5 ± 1.20.1670.130
Dairy
(mugs/day)
Baseline0.3 ± 0.50.3 ± 0.40.4 ± 0.60.4 ± 0.50.8050.231
Change at 1 month0 ± 0.30 ± 0.30.2 ± 0.60.2 ± 0.50.853<  0.001
Change at 3 months0 ± 0.40.1 ± 0.30.3 ± 0.60.2 ± 0.50.522<  0.001
Change at 6 months0.1 ± 0.40.1 ± 0.30.3 ± 0.60.1 ± 0.60.3240.007
Oils/Nuts
(portions/day)
Baseline6.4 ± 3.16.4 ± 2.86.7 ± 3.27.1 ± 3.50.6230.141
Change at 1 month0.1 ± 2.90.2 ± 2.21.1 ± 2.71.6 ± 2.50.328<  0.001
Change at 3 months0.4 ± 2.70.3 ± 2.61.6 ± 3.41.3 ± 2.60.615<  0.001
Change at 6 months− 0.1 ± 3.00.1 ± 2.50.6 ± 3.41.0 ± 2.90.4130.024
  1. aThere are no significant interactions between the exercise and nutrition groups for all variables; bTest for differences based on the exercise intervention status (average of the exercise group and the combination group compared with average of the control group and the nutrition group); cTest for differences based on the nutrition intervention status (average of the nutrition group and the combination group compared with average of the control group and the exercise group); dChange from baseline