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Table 4 Intervention effects on physical performance and mental health outcomes during the 6-month study period

From: Individualized home-based exercise and nutrition interventions improve frailty in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

  Mean ± SDDifference in difference: change from baseline in each intervention group minus change from baseline in control group (95% CI)p for groups × time interactionp for groupsp for time
Outcomes ControlExerciseNutritionCombinationExerciseNutritionCombination
Handgrip strength (kg)n80798277   0.0040.023<  0.001
Baseline25.0 ± 7.824.5 ± 7.724.9 ± 9.226.9 ± 8.5      
1 month25.1 ± 7.825.4 ± 8.624.9 ± 9.227.6 ± 8.40.91 (0.06, 1.75)−0.05 (− 0.89, 0.78)0.65 (− 0.19, 1.50)   
3 months25.1 ± 7.725.6 ± 8.825.8 ± 9.127.8 ± 8.51.10 (0.25, 1.94)a0.83 (− 0.01, 1.66)0.81 (− 0.04, 1.66)   
6 months25.3 ± 7.726.7 ± 8.726.3 ± 8.928.5 ± 8.72.00 (1.16, 2.84)a1.09 (0.26, 1.93)a1.30 (0.45, 2.14)a   
10-m gait speed (seconds)n80798377   0.1590.226<  0.001
Baseline10.7 ± 3.212.5 ± 7.713.0 ± 7.411.4 ± 4.3      
1 month10.6 ± 3.212.2 ± 8.112.4 ± 6.911.1 ± 4.0−0.21 (− 0.78, 0.35)− 0.48 (−1.04, 0.08)− 0.20 (− 0.77, 0.37)   
3 months10.6 ± 3.312.3 ± 8.512.4 ± 6.810.9 ± 3.8− 0.14 (− 0.70, 0.43)− 0.56 (− 1.12, 0.003)− 0.49 (− 1.06, 0.08)   
6 months10.8 ± 3.412.1 ± 8.112.3 ± 6.510.7 ± 3.4−0.41 (− 0.98, 0.16)− 0.81 (− 1.37, − 0.25)a−0.81 (− 1.38, − 0.24)a   
Upper body flexibility (cm)n76737673   <  0.0010.0200.408
Baseline−13.9 ± 12.3− 12.9 ± 16.7−13.2 ± 12.0−12.4 ± 12.5      
1 month−14.6 ± 12.2− 13.1 ± 14.5−13.1 ± 12.4−11.4 ± 12.40.49 (− 1.62, 2.60)0.82 (− 1.27, 2.90)1.71 (−0.40, 3.82)   
3 months−15.8 ± 10.0− 12.2 ± 13.3−14.5 ± 10.0−11.3 ± 13.32.54 (0.43, 4.65)0.54 (− 1.55, 2.63)3.07 (0.96, 5.18)a   
6 months−16.9 ± 10.5−10.6 ± 12.7−14.3 ± 10.3−10.5 ± 12.55.21 (3.10, 7.31)a1.86 (− 0.23, 3.94)4.92 (2.81, 7.03)a   
Lower body flexibility (cm)n76757974   0.0370.0200.810
Baseline−4.6 ± 8.9−2.9 ± 8.5−5.2 ± 8.1−3.3 ± 7.6      
1 month−5.5 ± 8.2−2.1 ± 8.5−5.4 ± 7.5−3.0 ± 7.41.76 (0.39, 3.13)a0.69 (−0.66, 2.05)1.27 (−0.11, 2.65)   
3 months−5.5 ± 7.9−2.0 ± 8.6−5.6 ± 7.3−2.2 ± 6.81.76 (0.39, 3.14)a0.45 (−0.90, 1.81)2.00 (0.63, 3.38)a   
6 months−5.8 ± 8.1−1.8 ± 9.0−6.0 ± 7.4−2.3 ± 7.22.33 (0.96, 3.70)a0.39 (−0.97, 1.74)2.17 (0.79, 3.55)a   
Lower extremity strength (number)n69617064   <  0.001<  0.001<  0.001
Baseline1.6 ± 3.03.9 ± 5.22.0 ± 3.33.8 ± 4.3      
1 month1.8 ± 3.15.3 ± 6.02.1 ± 3.55.7 ± 6.01.25 (0.30, 2.21)a−0.07 (−1.00, 0.85)1.70 (0.76, 2.65)a   
3 months1.8 ± 3.05.8 ± 5.82.0 ± 3.46.9 ± 6.61.74 (0.78, 2.70)a−0.12 (−1.04, 0.81)2.93 (1.99, 3.88)a   
6 months1.7 ± 2.96.9 ± 6.72.4 ± 3.58.0 ± 7.02.95 (1.99, 3.90)a0.34 (−0.58, 1.26)4.05 (3.11, 5.00)a   
GDS (scores)n80798377   0.4970.3430.255
Baseline2.2 ± 1.72.5 ± 1.82.6 ± 1.92.4 ± 1.6      
1 month2.4 ± 1.92.5 ± 1.72.6 ± 2.02.3 ± 1.4−0.19 (−0.62, 0.25)−0.20 (− 0.63, 0.23)− 0.32 (− 0.76, 0.12)   
3 months2.5 ± 1.82.6 ± 1.72.4 ± 1.82.3 ± 1.6− 0.15 (− 0.58, 0.29)−0.45 (− 0.89, − 0.02)−0.37 (− 0.81, 0.07)   
6 months2.4 ± 1.72.3 ± 1.62.4 ± 1.92.2 ± 1.6−0.43 (− 0.86, 0.01)− 0.42 (− 0.85, 0.01)−0.38 (− 0.82, 0.06)   
SF-12 MCS (scores)n80798376   0.5670.624<  0.001
Baseline53.8 ± 7.953.9 ± 8.153.4 ± 7.855.8 ± 7.0      
1 month54.5 ± 7.754.4 ± 8.353.9 ± 8.056.3 ± 6.7−0.22 (−1.87, 1.43)−0.24 (−1.87, 1.39)− 0.22 (− 1.89, 1.44)   
3 months54.0 ± 7.755.2 ± 7.955.0 ± 6.157.0 ± 6.31.09 (− 0.56, 2.74)1.33 (− 0.30, 2.96)0.94 (− 0.73, 2.60)   
6 months54.3 ± 7.155.9 ± 6.956.0 ± 5.957.3 ± 6.61.58 (−0.07, 3.23)2.12 (0.49, 3.75)a1.05 (−0.61, 2.72)   
  1. CI confidence interval; GDS Geriatric Depression Scale; SF-12 MCS 12-Item Short Form Health Survey mental component summary; aPairwise comparisons (interventions vs. control) were significant at the post hoc significance level of 0.017