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Table 3 Bite rate, Success Ratio, and BMI at baseline, T21, and T31 of the three different intervention groups with p–values for Phase (T1, T2, or T3), Condition (NFC, VFC, or VFC+), and Phase*Condition*; for number of observations see the flowchart. Mean ± SD

From: Effects of eating with an augmented fork with vibrotactile feedback on eating rate and body weight: a randomized controlled trial

  NFC VFC VFC+ Phase Condition Phase x condition
p-value*
Bite Rate (bites/min):
 Baseline 6.4 ± 0.3a 6.2 ± 0.3a 5.9 ± 0.3a    
 T2 5.6 ± 0.3b 4.4 ± 0.3b† 4.1 ± 0.4b†    
 T3 6.2 ± 0.4b 4.9 ± 0.3b† 4.6 ± 0.4b† .02 < .0001 < .01
Success ratio (%):
 Baseline 45.2 ± 2.9a 43.2 ± 2.7a 45.4 ± 3.0a    
 T2 44.3 ± 3.0a 65.3 ± 2.8b† 68.2 ± 3.1b†    
 T3 42.2 ± 3.2a 55.3 ± 3.0c† 57.5 ± 3.1c† 0.002 < .0001 < .0001
BMI (kg/m2):
 Baseline 31.7 ± 0.8a 31.1 ± 0.7a 31.6 ± 0.8a    
 T2 31.9 ± 0.8a 30.6 ± 0.7b† 31.2 ± 0.8b†    
 T3 31.3 ± 0.8a 30.3 ± 0.7c† 30.9 ± 0.8c† < .0001 .64 .019
  1. 1 NFC no feedback condition, VFC vibrotactile feedback condition, VFC+ vibrotactile + visual feedback condition
  2. T1: baseline measurement before the intervention period; T2: follow-up measurement directly after the intervention period; T3: follow-up measurement eight weeks after the intervention period
  3. * p-values Mixed model ANOVA, fixed factors: phase of the study, condition, phase*condition, random factor: subject. Boldface: significant at at least p < .05
  4. Columns with different letters are significantly different (at least p < 0.05)
  5. Rows with different symbols are significantly different (at least p < 0.05)