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Table 1 Characteristicsa of Participating Adults, Adolescents, and Children by Restaurant Chain and Timing of Purchase

From: Evaluation of the impact of calorie labeling on McDonald’s restaurant menus: a natural experiment

  Adults Adolescents Children
McDonald’s Other chain McDonald’s Other chain McDonald’s Other chain
Pre (n = 579) Post (n = 343) Pre (n = 1294) Post (n = 755) Pre (n = 546) Post (n = 332) Pre (n = 752) Post (n = 534) Pre (n = 126) Post (n = 59) Pre (n = 177) Post (n = 85)
Age, years 37.9 (16.7) 38.3 (15.7) 36.9 (15.9) 38.1 (15.2) 15.8 (2.9) 15.7 (2.7) 16.6 (2.7) 16.7 (2.5) 7.8 (3.0) 8.5 (3.1) 8.4 (3.3) 8.2 (3.1)
BMI, kg/m2 28.0 (6.1) 27.6 (5.8) 27.9 (6.2) 28.1 (6.0) 23.1 (4.5) 23.5 (5.0) 23.6 (4.8) 24.2 (5.3) 20.0 (6.0) 22.1 (7.0) 22.2 (6.9) 22.3 (7.6)
BMI-for-age-and-sex z score 0.52 (0.92) 0.54 (1.09) 0.49 (1.03) 0.59 (0.98) 0.76 (1.91) 1.11 (1.67) 1.24 (1.54) 1.27 (1.69)
Sex (%)
 Male 52 52 60 61 51 55 52 49 50 51 49 48
 Female 48 48 40 39 49 45 48 51 50 49 51 52
Race/ethnicity (%)
 White 34 38 40 40 17 17 22 20 15 17 24 15
 Black 34 36 29 29 32 35 34 38 37 36 27 33
 Hispanic 20 17 19 20 30 25 26 25 28 29 33 35
 Asian 4 2 4 5 8 8 5 5 3 3 3 4
 Other 9 8 9 7 14 14 13 11 17 15 12 13
City (%)
 Boston 28 39 24 37 55 70 44 54 29 44 35 52
 Hartford 28 21 34 24 16 16 17 14 33 19 35 21
 Providence 30 28 22 27 18 7 25 20 23 19 16 15
 Springfield 14 12 20 11 11 7 14 12 15 19 14 12
Restaurant (%)
 McDonald’s 100 100 100 100 100 100
 Burger King 43 48 35 29 54 67
 Kentucky Fried Chicken 17 16 20 12
 Subway 25 22 21 21 14 14
 Wendy’s 15 14 16 18 12 7
 Dunkin’ Donuts    28 32
Importance of calories in selecting meals (%)
 Not at all 49 47 49 50 46 47 51 55 48 37 40 34
 A little 26 26 25 22 32 31 30 27 23 27 30 27
 A lot 24 27 26 28 23 22 18 19 30 36 30 39
Estimation of daily calorie needs (%)
  < 1000 20 26 17 20 27 26 19 21 35 46 28 44
  ≥ 1000- < 2000 40 45 45 45 33 37 37 41 41 34 43 35
  ≥ 2000- < 3000 33 23 30 26 31 25 34 28 17 16 23 18
  ≥ 3000 8 6 8 8 8 12 10 9 6 4 6 3
  1. aMean (standard deviation) or %