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Table 4 Multivariable-Adjusted Difference-in-Differences (95% CI) for Calories Purchased in Adults and Adolescents by Participant Characteristics

From: Evaluation of the impact of calorie labeling on McDonald’s restaurant menus: a natural experiment

Characteristic Adultsa Adolescentsb
N Difference-in-differences N Difference-in-differences
Sex
 Male 1707 −19 (− 122, 85) 1121 −81 (− 203, 41)
 Female 1264 −12 (− 130, 106) 1043 − 12 (− 115, 92)
Obesity Statusc
 Obesity 889 −112 (− 282, 56) 284 −246 (− 500, 9)
 No obesity 2086 19 (− 67, 105) 1880 −30 (− 112, 52)
Race/ethnicity
 Black 906 −33 (− 151, 84) 747 −128 (−237, − 19)
 Hispanic 566 −63 (− 330, 203) 577 41 (− 131, 214)
 White 1143 −38 (−177, 100) 427 −141 (−291, 10)
  1. aAdjusted for age (years, continuous), sex (female [ref], male), race/ethnicity (white [ref], black, Asian, Hispanic, other), BMI (kg/m2, continuous), city (Boston [ref], Hartford, Providence, Springfield), and restaurant chain (Burger King [ref], KFC, Subway, Wendy’s). Restaurant location was included as a random effect
  2. bAdjusted for same variables as in adults, except BMI-for-sex-and-age z score (continuous) was used instead of BMI, and control restaurants included Burger King (ref), Wendy’s, Subway, and Dunkin’ Donuts
  3. cObesity defined as BMI ≥30 in adults and BMI-for-age-and-sex z score ≥ 1.645 in adolescents