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Table 3 Mixed-effects regression results expressed as percentage change in energy purchased (kcal)

From: Altering the availability of healthier vs. less healthy items in UK hospital vending machines: a multiple treatment reversal design

 Mean kcal per week per machine*
(s.d.)
Percentage energy (kcal) change
(95% CIs)
p-value
(Kenward-Roger)
SnacksStandard37,813
(48,082)
RefRef
Decrease Less healthy31,921
(38,622)
−17.2%
(− 47.4, 30.5)
0.407
 & Increase Healthier36,931
(46,198)
47.9%
(−7.9, 137.4)
0.103
Decrease Healthier37,511
(47,705)
−19.1%
(−48.5, 27.1)
0.350
 & Increase Less healthy41,955
(56,127)
37.8%
(−14.2, 121.3)
0.180
DrinksStandard4558
(5785)
RefRef
Decrease Less healthy1750
(2592)
−52.6%
(−69.3, −26.9)
0.001
 & Increase Healthier2042
(2795)
−17.1%
(−48.9, 34.6)
0.446
Decrease Healthier4900
(5863)
21.0%
(−23.8, 92.1)
0.415
 & Increase Less healthy5675
(7979)
3.1%
(−37.4, 69.8)
0.903
  1. * Unadjusted means; Means for increases represent periods when healthier options were increased while less healthy options remained decreased or periods when less healthy options were increased while healthier options remained decreased