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Table 5 Associations of objectively-assessed binary measures of area-level socio-economic status (SES) and walkability with scores on the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth for the IPEN Adolescent study (NEWS-Y-IPEN)

From: Development and validation of the neighborhood environment walkability scale for youth across six continents

NEWS-Y subscaleHypothesesArea-level SES (ref: low SES)Area-level walkability (ref: low walkability)
b (95% CI)pb (95% CI)p
Residential density+ association with walkability−3.45 (−11.96, 5.07).42850.36 (41.77, 58.94)<.001
Land use mix – diversity+ association with walkability0.01 (−0.03, 0.06).6290.44 (0.39, 0.49)<.001
Recreational facilities+ association with SES and walkability0.14 (0.08, 0.19)<.0010.16 (0.11, 0.21)<.001
Accessibility & walking facilities+ association with walkability0.02 (−0.01, 0.05).2150.24 (0.21, 0.28)<.001
Traffic safety+ association with SES0.05 (0.02, 0.09).005−0.01 (− 0.04, 0.03).576
Pedestrian infrastructure & safety+ association with SES and walkability0.00 (−0.04, 0.04).9340.16 (0.12, 0.20)<.001
Safety from crime+ association with SES0.16 (0.11, 0.21)<.0010.01 (−0.04, 0.06).635
Aesthetics+ association with SES0.18 (0.13, 0.22)<.0010.06 (0.02, 0.11).008
  1. Notes. + = positive; b = regression coefficient point estimate, CI confidence intervals; ref. = reference category; p = p-value; all models adjusted for child’s age and sex, and country. Clustering at the neighborhood and/or school level accounted for