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Table 3 Association of yearly changes in global dietary scores (GDSs) with concurrent changes in body weight or waist circumference over 5-year of follow-up by subgroups

From: Longitudinal association of changes in diet with changes in body weight and waist circumference in subjects at high cardiovascular risk: the PREDIMED trial

n = 7009Body weight change (kg)Waist circumference change (cm)
β (95% CI)p-valueβ (95% CI)p-value
GDS (per 1 SD)−0.16 (− 0.21, − 0.12)< 0.0001−0.27 (− 0.35, − 0.20)< 0.0001
Sex
 Men (n = 2986)− 0.14 (− 0.21, − 0.07)< 0.0001−0.18 (− 0.28, − 0.09)< 0.0001
 Women (4023)−0.18 (− 0.25, − 0.12)< 0.0001−0.35 (− 0.46, − 0.23)< 0.0001
p for interaction 0.498 0.019
Age
  < 65 (n = 2688)−0.19 (− 0.26, − 0.11)< 0.0001−0.24 (− 0.36, − 0.13)< 0.0001
  ≥ 65 (n = 4321)−0.15 (− 0.21, − 0.09)< 0.0001−0.29 (− 0.39, − 0.19)< 0.0001
p for interaction 0.371 0.591
Obesity status
 Non-obese (n = 3723)−0.15 (− 0.21, − 0.09)< 0.0001−0.21 (− 0.32, − 0.11)< 0.0001
 Obese (n = 3286)−0.19 (− 0.26, − 0.11)< 0.0001−0.35 (− 0.47, − 0.24)< 0.0001
p for interaction 0.445 0.076
Abdominal obesity status
 Non-abdominal obese (n = 1881)−0.10 (− 0.18, − 0.02)0.016−0.18 (− 0.31, − 0.05)0.007
 Abdominal obese (n = 5128)−0.19 (− 0.25, − 0.13)< 0.0001−0.31 (− 0.41, − 0.22)< 0.0001
p for interaction 0.107 0.042
Diabetes status
 Non-diabetics (n = 3618)−0.25 (− 0.32, − 0.18)< 0.0001−0.27 (− 0.38, − 0.17)< 0.0001
 Diabetics (n = 3391)−0.07 (− 0.13, 0.00)0.037−0.27 (− 0.38, − 0.16)< 0.0001
p for interaction 0.0001 0.864
Intervention group
 Controls (n = 2298)−0.19 (− 0.27, − 0.11)< 0.0001−0.33 (− 0.48, − 0.18)< 0.0001
 Intervention (n = 4711)−0.15 (− 0.21, − 0.10)< 0.0001−0.25 (− 0.34, − 0.17)< 0.0001
p for interaction 0.317 0.503
  1. β (95% CI) represents difference in yearly change in body weight (kg) or waist circumference (cm) associated with increments of each GDS (per 1 SD). Model used for generalized estimating equation analysis was adjusted for time, sex, center, intervention group, age, baseline BMI/WC (depending on the outcome) and educational level, as well as yearly measured changes in smoking status and physical activity. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference ≥ 88 cm (women) and ≥ 102 cm (men)