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Table 3 Associations between individual- and neighbourhood environmental characteristics with car driving (min/week) (n = 4258)

From: Neighbourhood drivability: environmental and individual characteristics associated with car use across Europe

 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 
 B (SE)pB (SE)pB (SE)p
Individual characteristics
 Age1.47 (0.44)0.001  1.43 (0.44)0.001
 Gender (man)43.2 (9.44)< 0.001  43.1 (9.44)< 0.001
 Employment (employed)80.1 (13.5)0.000  80.0 (13.5)< 0.001
 Household composition (≥3)47.4 (13.7)0.001  45.9 (13.7)0.001
 Education (high)−14.2 (10.2)0.164  −14.5 (10.2)0.156
Neighbourhood characteristics
 Car road densitya  −5.16 (3.53)0.144−3.85 (3.42)0.260
 Residential densityb  −2.62 (1.25)0.036−2.47 (1.21)0.041
 Land-use mixc  −3.82 (0.98)0.000−3.56 (0.95)< 0.001
 Traffic signal densityd  0.81 (1.05)0.4360.68 (1.01)0.504
 Parking supplye  −0.12 (0.88)0.890−0.26 (0.86)0.760
Explained variance at individual level0.03   
Explained variance at neighbourhood level0.09 0.25 0.30
Total unexplained model variance0.98 0.97 0.95 
  1. Model 1: Includes individual characteristics age, gender, employment, household composition and education
  2. Model 2: Includes neighbourhood characteristics car road density, residential density, land-use mix, traffic signal density and parking supply
  3. Model 3: Includes individual characteristics age, gender, employment, household composition and education, and neighbourhood characteristics car road density, residential density, land-use mix, traffic signal density and parking supply
  4. a Percentage of coverage of fast transit roads and associated land, and other roads and associated land per neighbourhood
  5. b Percentage of coverage of buildings devoted to residential facilities per neighbourhood
  6. c Entropy-score of 1) Industrial, commercial, public, military and private units, 2) Residential areas, 3) Green urban areas, and 4) Sports and leisure facilities
  7. d Traffic signal density (including traffic calming devices and pedestrian crossing) per street segment per neighbourhood
  8. e Percentage of parking lots per neighbourhood
  9. f Explained variance was obtained relative to the unconditional model, for model 1 residual variance (level1) and intercept variance (level 2) are presented, and for model 2 only intercept variance is presented