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Table 3 Outcome measures by park prescription intervention (PPI) and control groups at six-month follow-up

From: Effectiveness of prescribing physical activity in parks to improve health and wellbeing - the park prescription randomized controlled trial

Outcome measuresPPI (N = 71)Control (N = 74)Model 1aModel 2b
Treatment effectP-valueTreatment effectP-value
Primary
 Objective 10 min bouted MVPA (min/week)114.5 ± 121.3110.1 ± 150.94.4 (− 43.8, 52.7)0.8550.6 (−46.5, 47.6)0.981
 Objective 10 min bouted MVPA (min/week)*114.5 ± 121.387.7 ± 79.626.8 (− 9.7, 63.4)0.14825.2 (− 11.4, 61.9)0.176
Secondary
 Physical activity related behaviors
  Accelerometer valid measure period (day)7.2 ± 0.96.5 ± 1.20.7 (0.3, 1.0)0.001
  Average wear duration (hour/day)23.0 ± 2.323.1 ± 2.1− 0.1 (− 0.9, 0.7)0.759
  PA volume, ENMO (mg)34.6 ± 9.133.6 ± 9.01.1 (− 2.1, 4.3)0.5100.8 (− 2.3, 4.0)0.595
  Inactivity time, 0–25 mg (hour/week)66.2 ± 13.066.7 ± 13.9− 0.5 (− 5.2, 4.3)0.845− 0.3 (− 5.0, 4.5)0.905
  Light PA, 25–100 mg (hour/week)41.5 ± 8.540.3 ± 11.21.3 (− 2.2, 4.1)0.4751.3 (− 2.2, 4.8)0.476
  Total MVPA (min/week)814.9 ± 860.8662.4 ± 775.1152.5 (− 116.8, 421.8)0.265130.2 (− 129.1, 389.5)0.323
  Recreational MVPA (min/week)142.3 ± 155.493.6 ± 131.048.7 (1.4, 96.0)0.04446.2 (0.3, 92.1)0.049
  Sedentary time (hour/week)37.7 ± 21.344.0 ± 27.1−6.3 (−14.3, 1.7)0.122−6.1 (− 13.5, 1.3)0.103
  Time spent in Park (min/month)333.9 ± 506.2186.4 ± 358.4147.5 (2.1, 292.9)0.047156.0 (13.7, 298.3)0.032
  PA in Park (min/month)333.0 ± 499.3140.5 ± 270.7192.5 (59.5, 325.5)0.005190.3 (59.7, 320.9)0.005
Mental well-being
 General health from SF-12 (range: 1–5)2.8 ± 0.72.8 ± 0.9−0.1 (− 0.3, 0.2)0.712− 0.1 (− 0.3, 0.2)0.631
 K10 total (range: 10–50)14.0 ± 3.915.0 ± 4.9−1.0 (− 2.4, 0.5)0.199−0.7 (− 1.9, 0.6)0.277
 WHO5 total (range: 0–100)56.6 ± 20.157.6 ± 20.4−1.0 (− 7.7, 5.7)0.769−1.0 (− 6.9, 4.8)0.727
 QOL_physical (range: 0–100)71.8 ± 12.369.6 ± 11.82.1 (− 1.8, 6.1)0.288
 QOL_psychological (range: 0–100)65.1 ± 11.861.0 ± 12.54.0 (0.0, 8.0)0.047
 QOL_social (range: 0–100)66.0 ± 13.263.1 ± 13.63.0 (− 1.5, 7.4)0.187
 QOL_environment (range: 0–100)65.9 ± 12.464.3 ± 12.91.6 (− 2.6, 5.7)0.449
Physical Health
 Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L)4.89 ± 0.524.87 ± 0.540.02 (− 0.15, 0.20)0.808− 0.01 (− 0.17, 0.15)0.875
 High-density lipoprotein, HDL (mmol/L)1.56 ± 0.531.57 ± 0.44− 0.01 (− 0.17, 0.15)0.915−0.01 (− 0.11, 0.08)0.806
 Low-density lipoprotein, LDL (mmol/L)3.60 ± 0.863.31 ± 0.840.29 (0.01, 0.57)0.041−0.06 (− 0.23, 0.11)0.459
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.15 ± 0.711.20 ± 0.72− 0.04 (− 0.28, 0.19)0.7120.01 (− 0.17, 0.18)0.924
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHG)113.4 ± 12.0113.1 ± 12.90.2 (−3.9, 4.3)0.9120.5 (− 2.9, 3.9)0.770
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHG)70.0 ± 8.271.0 ± 8.6− 0.9 (− 3.7, 1.8)0.502−0.4 (− 2.8, 2.0)0.727
 BMI (kg/m2)24.2 ± 4.223.8 ± 4.00.4 (− 0.9, 1.8)0.536−0.3 (− 0.7, 0.0)0.074
  1. Note: mean ± SD are presented for each group together with the estimate of the treatment effect and the associated 95% CI
  2. N = 126 for accelerometer measures (62 for PPI and 64 for control group)
  3. aWith two extreme outliers removed in outcome: Objective 10 min bouted MVPA
  4. aModel 1 provides the unadjusted estimate using the independent sample t-test
  5. bModel 2 adjusts for baseline total physical activity via multiple linear regression