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Table 1 Descriptive data and assessment of risk of bias of studies reviewed

From: Association between parent and child physical activity: a systematic review

Author
Year
Country of study
Study design Parent-child
dyads, N
Age of children Family structure Measurement of PAa: children/parents Reported or calculated p-value and direction (+/−) of association between children’s and parent’s PA Overall risk of bias across domains
Moore et al. [19]
- 1991
- USA
Longitudinal 99 4–7 y Child and two biological parents Caltrac Accelerometer/ Caltarc Accelerometer Father-child total PA:
P = 0.09 (+)
Serious
Sallis et al. [20]
- 2002
- USA
Longitudinal 65 6–18 y Non-specified CSA model 7164 monitor/Questionnaire Parent-daughter VPAc:
P = 0.27 (+)
Critical
Loucaides et al. [21]
- 2006
- Cyprus
Cross-sectional 36 10–12 y One child and parents/guardians Yamax digiwalker pedometer + questionnaire/Yamax digiwalker pedometer + questionnaire Mother-child steps:
P = 0.72 (−)
Father-child steps
P = 0.54 (+)
Serious
Oliver et al. [22]
- 2010
- New Zealand
Cross-sectional 68 2–5 y Child and primary
caregivers.
Triads from two-parent families.
Dyads from single-parent families.
Actical accelerometer/ Actical accelerometer Parent-child total PA:
P = 0.01 (+)
Moderate
Fisher et al. [23]
- 2010
- United Kingdom
Longitudinal 92 7–9 y
Mb 8.31 ± 0.65 y
Children and parents ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer/ Questionnaire Parent-daughter MVPAd:
P = 0.39 (+)
Parent-daughter total PA:
P = 0.37 (+)
Parent-son MVPA:
P = 0.33 (−)
Parent-son total PA:
P = 0.33 (−)
Critical
Heitzler et al. [24]
- 2010
- USA
Cross-sectional 720 11–17 y
M 14.7 ± 1.8 y
Youth and one parent/guardian ActiGraph model 7164 accelerometer/The International Physical Activity Questionnaire Parent-daughter MVPA:
P = 0.06 (+)
Serious
Jago et al. [13]
- 2010
- United Kingdom
Cross-sectional 139 6 y Children and parents ActiGraph accelerometer/ ActiGraph accelerometer Parent-daughter MVPA:
P = 0.598 (+)
Parent-son MVPA:
P = 0.47 (+)
Moderate
Fuemmeler et al. [25]
- 2011
- USA
Cross-sectional 45 9–11 y
M girls 10.6 ± 0.63 y
M boys 10.6 ± 0.76 y
Child and mother and father MTI ActiGraph accelerometer/ MTI ActiGraph accelerometer Mother-child MVPA:
P = 0.01 (+)
Father-child MVPA:
P = 0.02 (+)
Serious
Jacobi et al. [26]
- 2011
- France
Cross-sectional 265 8–16 y Children and father and/or mother Yamax Digiwalker DW 450 Pedometer/Yamax Digiwalker DW 450 Pedometer + questionnaire Mother-child steps:
P = 0.00 (+)
Father-child steps:
P = 0.39 (+)
Serious
Ruiz et al. [27]
- 2011
- USA
Cross-sectional 80 3–5 y
M 4.2 ± 0.9 y
Children and parent/legal guardian ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer/ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer Parent-child MVPA:
P = 0.0001 (+)
Parent-child VPA:
P = 0.56 (−)
Moderate
O’Dwyer et al. [28]
- 2012
- Ireland/United Kingdom
Longitudinal 58 3–4.9 y
M 3.7 y
Children and parents ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer/ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer + a short version of Pre-PAQ questionnaire Parent-child total PA:
P = 0.00 (+)
Low
Craig et al. [29]
- 2013
- Canada
Cross-sectional 283 5–19 y
M girls 11.4 ± 0.5 y
M boys 12.3 ± 0.4 y
Child and a responder 20 years of age or older who was identified as a parent or legal guardian Pedometer (not specified)/Pedometer (not specified) Mother-daughter steps:
P = 0.03 (+)
Mother-son steps:
P = 0.00 (+)
Father-daughter steps:
P = 0.02 (+)
Father-son steps:
P = 0.05 (+)
Serious
Hnatiuk et al. [30]
- 2013
- Australia
Longitudinal 153 3.5–18.7 months
M T1: 3.5 ± 1.0 months
M T2: 8.8 ± 1.0 months
M T3: 18.7 ± 2.0 months
Child-parent dyads ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer/The Active Australia Survey Mother-child LPAe:
P = 0.00 (−)
Serious
Hesketh et al. [31]
- 2014
- United Kingdom
Cross-sectional 554 4 y
M 4.1 ± 0.1 y
Mother and child Actiheart monitor/Actiheart monitor + questionnaire Mother-child LPA:
P = 0.00 (+)
Moderate
Lloyd et al. [32]
- 2014
- Australia
Cross-sectional 70 5–12 yM 8.4 ± 2.4 y Oldest child and mother and/or father Yamax 200 pedometer/ Yamax 200 pedometer Father-child steps:
P = 0.07 (+)
Serious
Jago et al. [33]
- 2014
- United Kingdom
Cross-sectional 651 5–6 y
M girls 6.0 ± 0.42 y
M boys 6.0 ± 0.41 y
Children and at least one parent/caregiver ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer/ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer Mother-child MVPA:
P = 0.01 (+)
Father-child MVPA:
P = 0.07 (+)
Moderate
Sigmundová et al. [34]
- 2014
- Czech Republic
Cross-sectional 245 9–12 y
M girls 10.44 ± 1.33 y
M boys 10.57 ± 1.26 y
Children and parents Yamax pedometer/Yamax pedometer Parent-child steps:
P = 0.00 (+)
Serious
Duncan et al. [35]
- 2015
- USA
Cross-sectional 372 10–14 y
M 12.06 ± 1.69 y
Families with a girl ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer/Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Parent-daughter MVPA:
(African) P = 0.00 (+)
(Latino) P = 0.28 (+)
(White) P = 0.28 (+)
Critical
Tu et al. [36]
- 2015
- Canada
Cross-sectional 98 11–16 y
M 13.1 ± 1.8 y
One child and one parent ActiGraph GT3X/GT3X+ accelerometer/ActiGraph GT3X/GT3X+ accelerometer Father-child MVPA:
P = 0.00 (+)
Moderate
Tate et al. [37]
- 2015
- USA
Cross sectional 493 8–14 y
M 11.33 ± 1.49 y
One child
and one parent
ActiGraph GT2M accelerometer/ActiGraph GT2M accelerometer Parent-child MVPA:
P = 0.00 (+)
Critical
Sijtsma et al. [38]
- 2015
- Netherlands
Cross-sectional 230 2–5 y
M 3.7 ± 0.6 y
Children and parents TracmorD accelerometer/SQUASH questionnaire Mother-child total PA:
P = 0.14 (+)
Mother-child MPA:
P = 0.40 (+)
Father-child total PA:
P = 0.32 (+)
Father-child MPA:
P = 0.40 (+)
Moderate
Sigmund et al. [39]
- 2015
- Czech Republic
Cross-sectional 245 9–12 y
M girls 10.44 ± 1.33 y
M boys 10.57 ± 1.26 y
Children and parents Yamax pedometer/Yamax pedometer Mother-daughter steps:
P = 0.00 (+)
Mother-son steps:
P = 0.00 (+)
Father-daughter steps:
P = 0.00 (+)
Father-son steps:
P = 0.00 (+)
Serious
Hnatiuk et al. [40]
- 2016
- Australia
Cross-sectional 127 3–4 y One child and one parent Actiheart monitors/Questionnaire Mother-child MVPA:
P = 0.37 (−)
Mother-child LPA:
P = 0.01 (+)
Critical
Abbott et al. [41]
- 2016
- Australia
Cross-sectional 450 3–5 y
M T1: 4.6 y
M T2: 7.6 y
Children and both parents ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer/
The Active Australia Survey
Mother-daughter MVPA:
P = 0.29 (+)
Mother-son MVPA:
P = 0.05 (+)
Father-daughter MVPA:
P = 0.79 (+)
Father-son MVPA:
P = 0.85 (−)
Serious
Stearns et al. [42]
- 2016
- Canada
Cross-sectional 440 7–8 y Children and parents Unsealed Steps Count (SC)-T2 pedometer/
Unsealed Steps Count (SC)-T2 pedometer + The Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire
Parent-child steps:
P = 0.36 (+)
Serious
McMurray et al. [43]
- 2016
- USA
Cross-sectional 199 7–10 y
M 9.0 ± 0.9 y
One child and one parent/legal guardian Actical accelerometer/
Actical accelerometer
Father-child MVPA:
P = 0.009 (+)
Moderate
Solomon-Moore et al. [44]
- 2017
- United Kingdom
Cross-sectional 1067 5–6 y
M 6.01 ± 0.42 y
Children and parents ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer/
ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer
Parent-child total PA:
P = 0.005 (+)
Serious
Garriguet et al. [45]
- 2017
- Canada
Cross-sectional 1328 6–11 y
M 8 y
Biological parent-child dyad Actical accelerometer/Actical accelerometer + The Canadian Health Survey Parent-daughter MVPA:
P = 0.00 (+)
Parent-son MVPA:
P = 0.10 (+)
Moderate
Brown et al. [46]
- 2017
- United Kingdom
Longitudinal 406 9–10 y
M 10.2 ± 0.3 y
M follow-up 14.3 ± 0.3 y
Child and parents ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer/
ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer
Father-child total PA:
P = 0.30 (−)
Moderate
Song et al. [47]- 2017
- USA
Cross-sectional 55 3–5.99 y
10–12.99 y
Children and mothers ActiGraph wGT3X accelerometer/ActiGraph wGT3X accelerometer + The Canadian Health Survey Mother-child MVPA:
P = 0.01 (+)
Moderate
Chiarlitti et al. [48]
- 2017
- Canada
Cross-sectional 15 7–10 y
M 8.13 y
Non-specified Piezo SC-Step pedometer/Piezo SC-Step pedometer + questionnaire Parent-child total PA:
P = 0.597 (−)
Serious
Jago et al. [49]
- 2017
- United Kingdom
Longitudinal 1223 5–6 and 8–9 y
M 6 ± 0.4 y
M 9 ± 0.4 y
Children and at least one parent ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer/ ActiGraph wGT3X-BT
accelerometer
Mother-daughter MVPA:
P = 0.29 (+)
Mother-son MVPA:
P = 0.05 (+)
Father-daughter MVPA:
P = 0.05 (+)
Father-son MVPA:
P = 0.31 (+)
Moderate
Walsh et al. [50]
- 2017
- Australia
Cross-sectional 140 20 months-5 y
M 20 months
M 3.5 y
M 5 y
First born child and father ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer/
The Active Australia Survey
Father-child MVPA:
P = 0.02 (−)
Father-child LPA:
P = 0.181 (−)
Moderate
Dlugonski et al. [51]
- 2017
- USA
Cross-sectional 17 1–5 y
M 3.4 ± 1.4 y
Child and mother ActiGraph GT3x-BT accelerometer/
ActiGraph GT3x-BT accelerometer
Mother-child MVPA:
P = 0.78 (+)
Serious
Barkin et al. [52]
- 2017
- USA
Cross-sectional 1003 2–5 y
M 3.9 ± 0.9 y
Child and parent ActiGraph GT3X or GT3X+ accelerometer/
ActiGraph GT3X or GT3X+ accelerometer
Parent-child LPA:
P = 0.00 (+)
Moderate
Hnatiuk et al. [53]
- 2017
- Australia
Cross-sectional 206 1–3 y
M 2.7 ± 0.85 y
Children and mother ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer/
ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer
Mother-child total PA:
P = 0.17 (+)
Moderate
Maltby et al. [54]
- 2018
- Canada
Cross-sectional 24 2.5–5 y
M 3.76 ± 0.89 y
Child and mother Actical accelerometer/ Actical accelerometer Mother-child LPA:
P = 0.085 (−)
Mother-child MVPA:
P = 0.105 (+)
Moderate
Xu et al. [55]
- 2018
- China
Cross-sectional 247 5–6 y
M 57.5 ± 5.2 months
Child and a legal guardian ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer/ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer Mother-child MVPA:
P = 0.03 (+)
Mother-child total PA:
P = 0.20 (+)
Father-child MVPA:
P = 0.22 (+)
Father-child total PA:
P = 0.074 (+)
Moderate
Lee et al. [41]
- 2018
- Canada
Cross-sectional 123 1–2 y
M 1.6 ± 0.2 y
Children and parents ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer/The Canadian Health Measures Survey Parent-child MVPA:
P = 0.295 (+)
Moderate
  1. aPA Physical activity, bM mean, cVPA vigorous physical activity, dMVPA moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, eLPA light physical activity