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Table 2 Construct validity of subjective sedentary behaviour measurement tools

From: Validity and reliability of subjective methods to assess sedentary behaviour in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Subjective tool Study population Validity    Quality of study
N gender male;
mean age [SD] or age range;
nationality
Comparison measure Correlation
(95%CI)
Other results  
1-item questionnaires
EEPAQ; Elderly EXERNET Physical Activity Questionnaire [17]
Lopez-Rodriguez et al. 2017
73 15%;
71.96 (5.48) yr;
ESP
Actigraph GT1 M 0.574
P < 0.01
  Poor
GPAQ: Global Physical Activity Questionnaire [21]
Chu et al. 2018
78 31%;
20–65 yr;
SGP
Actigraph GT3X-BL Self-administered: 0.46 (0.18; 0.68)
Interview administered: 0.12 (− 0.11; 0.33)
MD − 175.8 min
(LoA − 556.1; 206.5)
More details are provided in study
Poor
GPAQ: Global Physical Activity Questionnaire [20]
Cleland et al. 2014
65 54%;
44 (14) yr;
GBR
Actigraph GT3X 0.187
P = 0.135
MD − 348.7 min (LoA − 721.1; 23.7) Poor
GPAQ: Global Physical Activity Questionnaire [24] Kastelic et al. 2019 42 88%;
M: 38 (8) yr F: 50 (7) yr; SVN
ActivPAL 3 0.317 P = 0.041 MD − 165 min
(LoA − 429; 99)
Fair
GPAQ: Global Physical Activity Questionnaire [18]
Laeremens et al. 2017
122 45%;
35 (10) yr;
BEL, ESP, GBR
Sensewear armband Mid-season: 0.09 P > 0.05
Summer: 0.25 P < 0.01
Winter: 0.24 P < 0.01
MD 8 min (LoA −75; 92) Poor
GPAQ: Global Physical Activity Questionnaire [22]
Metcalf et al. 2018
108 31%;
49.4 yr (range: 19.8–68.7);
USA
ActiGraph GT9X 0.19   Poor
GPAQ: Global Physical Activity Questionnaire [23]
Rudolf et al. 2020
54 43%;
28.3 (12.2) yr;
DEU
ActiGraph GT3X+ GPAQ with illustration of exemplary physical activities: 0.32 P = 0.02
GPAQ without illustration: 0.29 P = 0.03
GPAQ with illustration: − 9.3 min/day (LoA − 322.1; 303.5) GPAQ without illustration: − 18.3 min/day (LoA − 313.7; 277.1) Poor
GPAQ: Global Physical Activity Questionnaire [19]
Wanner et al. 2017
366 49%;
47.0 (15) yr;
CHE
Actigraph GT3X+ 0.47 P ≤ 0.001   Poor
IPAQ (short); International Physical Activity Questionnaire [26]
Craig et al. 2003
2721 25–73%;
18–65 yr;
12 countries
Accelerometer (CSA model 7164) Range: 0.07–0.61   Poor
IPAQ (short); International Physical Activity Questionnaire [43]
Prince et al. 2018
313 0%; 42.8 (11.9) yr;
CAN
ActiGraph GT3X 0.31 (P < 0.001) IPAQ:
MD 451.9–0.826* min
Poor
IPAQ (short); International Physical Activity Questionnaire) [44]
Rosenberg et al. 2008
289 45%; 35.9 (11.3) yr;
GBR, USA, NLD
Accelerometer (CSA model 7164) 0.34   Poor
Modified MOSPA-Q; MONICA Optional Study on Physical Activity Questionnaire [28]
Chau et al. 2012
70 40%; 19–60+ yr;
AUS
ActiGraph GTIM 0.52 P < 0.01   Poor
PPAQ; Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire [29]
Simpson et al. 2015
419 49%;
M: 43.8 (15.8) yr
F: 44.3 (16.5) yr;
USA
Actical 0.20 (0.14; 0.33)   Poor
SED-GIH [30]
Larsson et al. 2018
284 33%;
42.9 (8.9) yr;
SWE
ActivPAL 0.31 (95% CI 0.20–0.41), P < 0.001   Excellent
SQ; Single Question [32]
Aguilar-Farias et al. 2015
37 34%;
74.5 (7.6) yr;
AUS
ActivPAL 3 0.33; wk. 0.31; wknd 0.28   Fair
SQ; Single Question [33]
Clemes et al. 2012
44 30%;
41.5 (12.8) yr;
GBR
ActiGraph GT1M wk: 0.70 (P < 0.001)
wknd: 0.55 (P < 0.001)
ICC
wk.: 0.82 (P < 0.001)
wknd: 0.69 (P < 0.001)
Poor
TASST; TAxonomy of Self-report SB Tools [31] 1) Single item total times; 2) Single item proportion; 3) TV time
Chastin et al. 2018
700 48%;
64–83 yr;
GBR
ActivPal Previous day
1) 0.20; 2) 0.28; 3) 0.24
Previous wk
1) 0.23; 2) 0.36; 3) 0.23
Unanchored
1) 0.20; 2) 0.32; 3) 0.26 All P-values< 0.001
Previous day
1) LoA − 147; 561
2) LoA − 22; 48
3) LoA 145; 733
Previous wk
1) LoA; − 150; 564
2) LoA; − 19; 43
3) LoA 81; 732
Unanchored
1) LoA − 135; 549
2) LoA − 19; 51
3) LoA 125; 705
Excellent
T-SQ; Total sitting questionnaire [35]
Kozey-Keadle et al. 2012
13 75%;
46.5 (10.8) yr;
USA
ActivPal wk 0.41; wknd 0.55 Wk MD 40.5 min (− 125.2; 22.3)
Wknd MD 147.4 min (− 228.3; − 66.6)
Poor
TV-Q; TV viewing [35]
Kozey-Keadle et al. 2012
13 75%;
46.5 (10.8);
USA
ActivPal wk: 0.07; wknd: − 0.11   Poor
YPAS; Yale Physical Activity Survey for Older Adults [36]
Gennuso et al. 2015
58 21% 75.1 (6.5) yr; USA ActiGraph GT1M   kappa − 0.0003,
(− 0.0025; 0.0019)
Poor
Gao et al. 2017 [102] 70 41.4%;
33.1 (10.7) yr;
CHI, FIN
Thigh-mounted accelerometer 3 months: 0.53 (95% CI 0.34–0.68), P < 0.001
Previous day: 0.53 (95% CI 0.45–0.61) P < 0.001
3 months: MD 2.4% (LoA − 0.5%; 5.3%)
Previous day: MD 2.2% (LoA 0.7%; 3.6%)
Poor
Gupta et al. 2017 [37] 183 60%; 44.9 (9.8) yr; DNK Actigraph GT3X 0.32 P < 0.001 MD 204.1 min
(LoA 112.4–0.6*min; 463.6+  0.6*min)
Poor
2–9-item questionnaires
AQuAA; Activity Questionnaire for Adults and Adolescents [38]
Chinapaw et al. 2009
47 36%;
30.1 (3.6) yr;
NLD
Actigraph model 7164   ICC 0.15 Poor
Cancer Prevention Study-3 Sedentary Time Survey [39]
Rees-Punia et al. 2018
713 41%;
51.7 yr (range 31–72);
USA
Actigraph GT3x
accelerometer + diary
0.41 (0.35; 0.47)   Poor
CHAMPS; Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors [40]
Hekler et al. 2012
870 43%;
66–80+ yr;
USA
Actigraph
model 7164 and 71,256
0.12 P < 0.001 MD − 2841.6 min
(LoA − 4476.7; − 1206.5)
Poor
CHAMPS; Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors [36]
Gennuso et al. 2017
58 21%; 75.1 (6.5) yr; USA ActiGraph GT1M 0.14 P = 0.28 CHAMPS:
MD −5.21 hrs
(LoA − 2.2; − 8.3)
Poor
FPACQ; Flemish Physical Activity Computerized Questionnaire [41]
Matton et al. 2007
81 77%;
22–78 yr;
BEL
RT3 Triaxial Research Tracker + activity record Employed / unemployed
Eat: M 0.53 (P< 0.01);
F 0.56 (P< 0.01)
Sleep M 0.69 (P< 0.001);
F 0.60 (P< 0.001)
Tv M 0.69 (P< 0.001);
F 0.83 (P< 0.001)
Retired
Eat M 0.33; F 0.15
Sleep M 0.57 (P< 0.01); F 0.51 (P< 0.05)
Tv M 0.78 (P< 0.001);
F 0.80 (P< 0.001)
  Poor
FPACQ; Flemish Physical Activity Computerized Questionnaire [42]
Scheers et al. 2012
405 41.4 (9.8) yr;
BEL
SenseWear + electronic activity diary Total sedentary time 0.54 (P < 0.001)
Screen time 0.57 (P = 0.648)
Motorized transport 0.58 (P < 0.001)
  Poor
IPAQ (long); International Physical Activity Questionnaire [27]
Chastin et al. 2014
69 67%;
41.1 (9.0) yr;
GBR
ActivPal 0.159
(P = 0.193)
ICC 0.149 Good
IPAQ (long); International Physical Activity Questionnaire [82]
Chau et al. 2011
95 37%;
18–60+ yr;
AUS
Actigraph GT1M Wk: 0.47
Wknd: 0.31
Total: 0.46
  Poor
IPAQ (long); International Physical Activity Questionnaire [46]
Cleland et al. 2018
228 57%;
71.8 (6.6) yr;
GBR
Actigraph GT3X+ Wk: 0.70 (P < 0.01)
Wknd: 0.26
Wk: MD −168.6 min (LoA − 451.8; 114.6)
Wknd d: MD − 173.9 min (LoA − 441.6; 93.8)
Poor
IPAQ (long); International Physical Activity Questionnaire [26]
Craig et al. 2003
2721 25–73%;
18–65 yr;
12 countries
Accelerometer (CSA model 7164) Range: 0.14–0.51   Poor
IPAQ (long); International Physical Activity Questionnaire [44]
Rosenberg et al. 2008
289 45%;
35.9 (11.3) yr;
GBR, USA, NLD
Accelerometer (CSA model 7164) 0.33   Poor
IPAQ (long); International Physical Activity Questionnaire [47]
Ryan et al. 2018
86 48%;
73.7 (6.3) yr; GBR
GENEA, (GENEactiv Original) 0.29 MD 27.6 (LoA ± 26.5 hrs/week) Poor
IPAQ (long); International Physical Activity Questionnaire [25]
Wanner et al. 2016
346 45%;
54.6 yr;
CHE
Actigraph GT3X 0.42 P ≤ 0.001 MD 26.4 min
(LoA − 12.0; 64.9)
Poor
OPAQ; Occupational Physical Activity Questionnaire [48]
Reis et al. 2005
41 32%;
38.8 (9.9) yr;
USA
Physical activity record 0.37   Poor
OSPAQ; Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire [28]
Chau et al. 2012
76 40%;
19–60+ yr;
AUS
ActiGraph GTIM 0.65 P < 0.01 MD 22 min (LoA − 141.53; 185.18) Poor
OSPAQ; Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire [51]
Jancey et al. 2014
41 41%;
18–50+ yr;
AUS
ActiGraph
GT3X + on the waist or thigh
0.58 (0.33; 0.75) MD − 25.4 min
(LoA − 784.7; 733.9)
Poor
OSPAQ; Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire [49]
Pedersen et al. 2016
34 25%;
45.62 (10.96) yr;
AUS
ActivPal 0.90 MD 3.16%
(LoA − 21.4%; 15.1%)
Poor
OSPAQ; Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire [50]
van Nassau et al. 2015
42 14%;
38 (11) yr;
AUS
ActivPAL Day 1: 0.37 (P < 0.05)
Day 2: 0.48 (P < 0.05)
Day 3: 0.35 (P < 0.05)
only figures available for MD and LoA Fair
PAS2; Physical Activity Scale [52]
Pedersen et al. 2017
330 38%;
46.7 (8.5) yr;
DNK
Actiheart 0.197 (P = 0.053) MD −2.3 hrs
(LoA − 9.04; 4.34)
Poor
PASBAQ; Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire [53]
Scholes et al. 2014
2175 46%;
M: 52.7 (17.7) yr
F: 51.8 (17.8) yr;
GBR
ActiGraph GT1M Sedentary time for different cut-off points
M
< 50 cpm 0.25 (0.19; 0.31); < 100 cpm 0.25 (0.19; 0.30); < 200 cpm 0.23 (0.17; 0.29)
F
< 50 cpm 0.31 (0.25; 0.37); < 100 cpm 0.30 (0.24; 0.35); < 200 cpm 0.27 (0.21; 0.32)
  Poor
PASB-Q; Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire [54]
Fowles et al. 2017
32 19%;
M: 63 (9) yr
F: 55 (10) yr;
USA
ActiGraph® GT3X Total SB: 0.29 P = 0.13
Breaks: 0.02 P > 0.05
  Poor
PAST-U; Past-day Adults’ Sedentary Time University) [55]
Clark et al. 2016
57 53%;
26 (IQR 23; 31) yr;
AUS
ActivPAL 0.63 (0.44; 0.76) ICC 0.64 (0.45; 0.77)
MD 0.08 hrs
(LoA − 3.9; 4.1)
Good
PAT Survey; Physical Activity and Transit Survey [56]
Yi et al. 2015
667 39%;
18–65+ yr;
USA
ActiGraph GT3X 0.32
P < 0.001
MD: 49 min
(LoA − 441; 343)
Poor
RPAQ; Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire [58]
Besson at el. 2010
50 50%;
F 34.3 (8.8) yr M 35.2 (9.9) yr;
GBR
Doubly labeled water and accelerometerwith heart rate 0.27 (P = 0.06) 0.7 hrs (LoA 6 2.8) Poor
RPAQ; Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire [57]
Golubic et al. 2014
1923 30%; F: 54.0 (9.3) yr, M: 55.0 (9.9) yr; EUR Actiheart F: 0.20 (0.14; 0.25)
M: 0.25 (0.19; 0.31)
F: MD −3.3 hrs
(LoA − 9.0; 4.1)
M: MD − 2.3 hrs
(LoA − 8.3; 5.5)
Total MD − 3.1 hrs
(LoA − 9.6; 4.9)
Poor
Regicor Short Physical Activity Questionnaire [59] Molina et al. 2017 114 45%;
54.5 (12.1) yr;
ESP
SenseWear Pro3 Armband 0.244 (P = 0.020)   Poor
SCCS PAQ; Southern Community Cohort Study Physical Activity Questionnaire [60]
Buchowski et al. 2012
118 48%;
54.5 (8.4) yr;
USA
RT3 Stayhealthy Range 0.17–0.30   Poor
SITBRQ: Workplace Sitting Breaks Questionnaire [61] Pedisic et al. 2014 143 37%;
18–60+ yr;
AUS
Actigraph GT1M Freq: 0.24 (0.07; 0.40)
Duration: 0.05 (− 0.12; 0.22)
  Poor
Stand Up For Your Health Questionnaire [62]
Gardiner et al. 2011
48 27%;
72.8 (8.1) yr;
AUS
ActiGraph GTIM 0.30 (0.02; 0.54) MD − 9.20 + 0.67 hrs
(LoA ± 3.82)
Poor
STAQ; Sedentary, Transportation and Activity Questionnaire [63]
Mensah et al. 2016
88 47%;
40.5 (14.3) yr;
FRA
Actigraph GT3X+ + Log Total 0.54 (P < 0.001)
Work 0.88 (P < 0.001)
Transport 0.35 (P = 0.001)
Leisure time 0.19 (P = 0.09)
TV/DVD 0.46 (P < 0.001)
Computer/tablet/video game 0.42 (P < 0.001)
Total ICC 0.44 (0.25; 0.60) Poor
TASST; TAxonomy of Self-report SB Tools [31]
4) Sum of domains; 5) Patterns
Chastin et al. 2018
700 48%;
64–83 yr;
GBR
ActivPal Previous day
4) 0.23; 5) 0.17
Previous wk
4) 0.30; 5) 0.23
Unanchored
4) 0.16; 5) 0.02
All P-values< 0.001
Previous day
4) LoA − 273; 533
5) LoA − 472; 748
Previous wk
4) LoA − 413; 482
5) LoA − 529; 727
Unanchored
4) LoA-373; 529
5) LoA − 34; 980
All P-values < 0.001
Excellent
Survey of older adults’ sedentary time [64] Gennuso et al. 2016 44 36%; 70 (68–76) yr; USA ActivPAL 0.06
(P = 0.72)
MD 0.31 hrs (LoA − 6.74; 7.37) Fair
Web-based physical activity questionnaire Active-Q [65]
Bonn et al. 2015
148 100%;
65.4 (8.7) yr;
SWE
GENEA Accelerometer 0.19 (0.04; 0.34) MD − 178 min (LoA − 606,25) Poor
WSWQ; Percentage-Method Improves Properties of Workers’ Sitting- and Walking-Time Questionnaire [66]
Matsoe et al. 2016
62 58%;
F 35.8 (7.5) yr
M 46.3 (8.0) yr;
JPN
ActivPAL Time method
At work: 0.56
Work day, not at work: 0.51
Non-workday: 0.37
Percentage method
At work: 0.65
Work day, not at work: 0.60
Non-workday: 0.53
All P < 0.05
Time method
At work: MD −7 min (LoA − 241; 241)
Non-workday: MD − 115 min (LoA − 588; 358)
Percentage method
At work: MD 35 min (LoA − 200; 269)
Non-workday: MD − 56 min (LoA − 392; 281)
Good
Cartmel et al. 1992 [72]
Questionnaire A
Questionnaire B
24 38%;
M 69 (66–80) yr;
F 74 (59–83) yr;
USA
Diary   Time difference
Qa 230 min P < 0.001
Qb 40 min, P = 0.47
Poor
Clark et al. 2011 [67] 121 40%;
Median 34.9 (28.5–46.0) yr;
AUS
Accelerometer Sedentary time
0.39 (0.22; 0.53)
Sedentary breaks
0.26 (0.11; 0.44)
Sedentary time
MD −2.75 + 0.47* hrs
(LoA ±2.25)
Poor
Ishii et al. 2018 [85] 392 39.8%; 50.1 (7) yr; JPN Active
style Pro, HJA-350IT
Total
0.49, P < 0.001
Workdays
0.57, P < 0.001
Non-workdays
0.23, P < 0.001
Total
MD − 13.4 min/d (LoA − 361.9; 335.2)
Workdays
MD − 0.4 min/d (LoA − 378.9; 378.1)
Non-workdays
MD − 49.2 min/d (LoA − 477.7; 379.2)
Poor
Jefferis et al. 2016 [68] 1377 100%;
79 (71–93) yr;
GBR
ActiGraph
GT3X +
0.17
P < 0.001
MD 300 min (LoA − 6; 607) Poor
Lagersted-Olsen et al. 2014 [69] 26 53%;
40.9 (8.6) yr;
DNK
ActiGraph GT3X+ + diary Work:
Total 0.081 (P = 0.699)
Uninterrupted sitting 0.315(P = 0.126)
Leisure time at workday:
Total − 0.185 (P = 0.366)
Uninterrupted sitting − 0.069 (P = 0.762)
Leisure day:
Total 0.100 (P = 0.626)
Uninterrupted sitting 0.063 (P = 0.770)
Work:
MD 0.0 (LoA −3.4; 3.4)
Leisure:
MD 2.4 (LoA − 7.8; 3.0)
Uninterrupted sitting:
MD 0.5 (LoA − 1.1; 2.1)
Poor
Sudholz et al. 2017 [71] 52 58%;
32.1 (9.9) yr;
AUS
ActivPal Sitting time 0.24
(− 1.0; 0.47)
Breaks 0.39
(0.25; 0.74)
  Good
≥10-item questionnaires
ASBQ; Adult Sedentary Behaviour Questionnaire [21]
Chu et al. 2018
78 31%; 20–65 yr; SGP Actigraph GT3X-BL Self-administered: 0.31 (− 0.02; 0.58)
Interview administered:
− 0.07 (− 0.37; 0.24)
MD 4.6 min/d (LoA − 431.2; 440.4)
More details see full study
Poor
D-SQ; Domain-Specific Questionnaire [35]
Kozey-Keadle et al. 2012
20 75%;
46.5 (10.8) yr;
USA
ActivPal wk 0.30; wknd:0.17 Wk 176 min
(96.1; 256.9)
Wknd 157.6 min
(22.1; 293.0)
Poor
MPAQ; Madras Physical Activity Questionnaire [73]
Anjana et al. 2015
520 53%;
44.4 (14.2) yr;
IND
GT3X+ Triaxial 0.48 (0.32; 0.62)   Poor
MSTQ; Multicontext Sitting Time Questionnaire [74]
Whitfield et al. 2013
25 44%;
34.5 (7.7) yr;
USA
ActiGraph
GT1M
Work 0.34 P = 0.13
Non-working 0.61 P= 0.01
  Poor
PAFQ: Physical Activity Frequency Questionnaire [75] Verhoog et al. 2019 1752 49%;
60.5 (9.4) yr;
CHE
GENEActive Total minutes 0.37 (0.33; 0.41)
Total % of time 0.39 (0.35; 0.43)
No exact numbers available for MD and LoA, figure only Poor
PAST-WEEK-U [76]
Moulin et al. 2019
25 12%;
≤ 19 yr: 64%
20–24 yr: 36%;
CAN
ActivPAL4   MD 0.09 hrs/day (LoA − 5.38; 5.55) Poor
NIGHTLY-WEEK-U [76]
Moulin et al. 2019
23 4%;
≤ 19 yr: 48%;
20–24 yr: 52%;
CAN
ActivPAL4   MD 0.21 hrs/day
(LoA − 1.75; 2.17)
Poor
SBQ: Sedentary Behaviour Questionnaire [24]
Kastelic et al. 2019
42 88%;
M: 38 (8) yr F: 50 (7) yr; SVN
ActivPAL 3 0.018, P = 0.910 MD − 181 min
(LoA − 467; 105)
Fair
SBQ; Sedentary Behaviour Questionnaire [43]
Prince et al. 2018
313 5%;
42.8 (11.9) yr;
CAN
ActiGraph GT3X 0.43 (P < 0.001) MD 350.27–0.6685* min Poor
SBQ; Sedentary Behaviour Questionnaire [77]
Rosenberg et al. 2010
842 48%;
M: 43.9 (8.0) yr
F: 41.2 (8.7) yr;
USA
Actigraph (model WAM 7164) Wk − 0.02 (0.78)
Wknd − 0.005 (0.93)
Total − 0.01 (0.81)
  Poor
SIT-Q; Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire [78]
Lynch et al. 2014
34 41%;
38.0 (19.5) yr;
CAN
1) Diary – postural definition
2) Diary MET-based definition
1) Postural definition
Total 0.53 (P < 0.01)
Meals 0.19 (P = 0.11)
Transportation 0.37 (P < 0.01)
Work, study, and volunteering 0.76 (P < 0.01)
Care 0.49 (P < 0.01)
Leisure time 0.26 (P = 0.03)
2) MET-based definition
Total 0.52 (P < 0.01)
Meals 0.29 (P = 0.01)
Transportation 0.34 (P < 0.01)
Work, study, and volunteering 0.75 (P < 0.01)
Care 0.46 (P < 0.01)
Leisure time 0.26 (P = 0.03)
  Poor
SIT-Q-7d; last 7-d sedentary behavior questionnaire [79]
Busschaert etl al. 2015
66 Adults:
36%;
47.7 (10.5) yr;
Older adults:
61%;
72.2 (4.4) yr;
BEL
ActivPAL Adults:
Average day 0.49 (0.18; 0.71) P = 0.004
Wk 0.52 (0.22; 0.73) P = 0.002
Wknd 0.36 (− 0.29; 0.40) P = 0.743
Older Adults:
Average day 0.48 (0.16; 0.71) P = 0.005
Wk 0.50 (0.19; 0.72) P = 0.003
Wknd 0.38 (0.04; 0.64) P = 0.030
  Fair
SIT-Q-7d; last 7-d sedentary behavior questionnaire [80]
Wijndeale et al.2014
53 38%;
38.4 (11.3) yr;
BEL
ActivPAL + domain log Dutch version
Total 0.52 P < 0.001
Meals 0.21 P > 0.05
Transportation 0.46 P < 0.001
Occupation 0.63 P < 0.001
Screen time 0.76 P < 0.001
Other 0.36 P < 0.05
Dutch
MD 59 min (LoA − 4.81; 8.17)
Good
STAR-Q [81]
Csizmadi et al. 2014
102 40%;
M: 50.6 (6.9) yr
F: 46.0 (8.6) yr;
CAN
Doubly Labeled Water and 7-d activity diary Total 0.40 P < 0.001
Occupational sitting 0.75
  Poor
TASST TAxonomy of Self-report SB Tools [31]
6) Sum of behaviours
Chastin et al. 2018
700 48%;
64–83 yr;
GBR
ActivPal Previous day
6) 0.23
Previous wk
6) 0.32
Unanchored
6) 0.33
All P-values< 0.001
Previous day
6) -651; 367
Previous wk
6) -755; 265
Unanchored
6) -725; 286
Excellent
WSQ; Workforce Sitting Questionnaire [82]
Chau et al. 2011
95 37%;
18–60+ yr;
AUS
Actigraph GT1M Work: 0.45
workday: 0.34
non-work: 0.23
Total: 0.40
Total MD 44.55
(LoA − 295.31; 384.41)
Work day MD 1.58 (LoA − 227.86; 231.02)
Poor
WSQ; Workforce Sitting Questionnaire [50]
van Nassau et al. 2015
42 14%;
38 (11) yr;
AUS
ActivPAL Day 1: 0.25 (P > 0.05)
Day 2: 0.29 (P > 0.05)
Day 3: 0.30 (P > 0.05)
No exact numbers available for MD and LoA, figure only Fair
WSQ; Workforce Sitting Questionnaire [83]
Toledo et al. 2019
546 25%;
45.1 (16.4) yr;
USA
ActivPAL   MD (95% CI):
Work hours 47.9 min (39.2; 56.6)
Non work hours on workdays − 38.3 (− 47.4; − 29.1)
Non work hours on non-workdays − 106.7 (− 124.0; −  89.5)
Kappa agreement (95% CI): 0.13 (0.08; 0.18)
Poor
Clark et al. 2015 [84] 700 45%;
59 yr (range 35–65+);
AUS
ActivPAL3 0.46 (0.40; 0.52) 0.53*average hrs (LoA ±4,32 h) Excellent
Clemes et al. 2012 [33] 44 30%;
41.5 (12.8) yr;
GBR
ActiGraph Domain specific:
wk.: 0.54 (P < 0.001)
wknd: 0.13 (P = 0.41)
ICC
Domain:
wk.: 0.64 (P < 0.001)
wknd: 0.20 (P = 0.23)
Poor
Marshall et al. 2010 [86] 101 38%;
F: 51–59 yr
M: < 50 - > 60 yr;
AUS
7-d behaviour log for correlation coefficient and ActiGraph GT1M for Bland-Altman plots Travel
F wk. 0.47; wknd 0.20
M wk. 0.64; wknd 0.15
Work
F wk. 0.69; wknd 0.38
M wk. 0.74; wknd 0.13
TV
F wk. 0.61; wknd 0.53
M wk. 0.50; wknd 0.33
Computer
F wk. 0.74; wknd 0.64
M wk. 0.69; wknd 0.61
Other Leisure
F wk. 0.26; wknd 0.42
M wk. 0.21; wknd 0.19
F
Wk:-63.6 (− 395.5; 268.4)
Wknd: 10.8 (− 396.0; 419.7)
Poor
Van Cauwenberg et al. 2014 [87] 442 45%;
74.2 (6.2) yr;
BEL
Actigraph GT3X + 0.30 (P < 0.001) MD − 81.88
(LoA − 364.16; 200.41) at 540 min/d
Poor
Visser et al. 2013 [88] 83 51%;
74.3 (6.9) yr;
NLD
Actigraph Model GT3X 0.35 (P < 0.05) MD − 2.1 hrs
(LoA − 7.40; 3.25)
Poor
Logs and diaries
7-day SLIPA Log; (7-day Sedentary and Light Intensity Physical Activity Log) [89]
Barwais et al. 2014
22 48%;
26.5 (4.1) yr;
USA
GT3X 0.86 (0.70; 0.94) MD − 0.3 hrs
(LoA − 2.1; 1.6)
Poor
BAR; Bouchard Activity Record [90]
Hart et al. 2011
32 50%;
F: 30.2 (9.5) yr
M: 29.1 (7.9) yr; USA
ActivPAL 0.87 P < 0.05   Fair
BeWell24 Self-Monitoring App
Toledo et al. 2017 [91]
17 85%;
49.0 (8.9) yr;
USA
ActivPAL3c   ICC 0.35 (0.04; 0.56)
MD − 160.4 min
(LoA-179.8; − 141.0)
Poor
cpar24; Computer-Based 24-Hour Physical Activity Recall Instrument [92]
Kohler et al. 2017
49 49%;
50 (22–69) yr;
DEU
ActiGraph GT3X 0.54 MD − 31 min
(LoA − 380; 319)
Poor
EMA; Ecological Momentary Assessment [93]
Knell et al. 2017
168 33%;
43.4 (13.1) yr;
USA
ActiGraph GT3X 0.16 (P = 0.03)   Poor
MARCA; Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults [32]
Aguilar-Farias et al. 2015
33 34%;
74.5 (7.6) yr;
AUS
ActivPAL 3 day 0.63; wk.: 0.67; wknd: 0.47   Fair
MARCA; Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults [94]
Gomersall et al. 2015
58 52%; 28 (7.4) yr; AUS ActivPAL 0.77 (0.64; 0.86) P < 0.01 MD 0.59 hrs (LoA − 2.35; 3.53) Good
PAMS; Physical Activity Measurement Survey [95]
Kim et al. 2017
1356 42%;
46.2 (SE 0.4) yr;
USA
SenseWear Armband Mini Day 1: 0.45 (P = 0.04)
Day 2: 0.49 (P = 0.04)
LoA − 618.6; 176.0 min Poor
PDR; Previous Day Recall [45]
Kozey Keadle et al. 2014
15 47%; 33.1 (11.5) yr; USA Direct observation   ICC
Total 0.81 (0.58; 0.91) Home 0.96 (0.91; 0.98) Work/School 0.93 (0.86; 0.97 Community 0.71 (0.47; 0.86) Household activity 0.84 (0.69; 0.93) Work 0.88 (0.75; 0.94)
Education 0.12 (− 0.29; 0.48)
Transportation 0.62 (0.32; 0.81)
Leisure 0.55 (0.23; 0.77)
Poor
Time Use Survey
van der Ploeg et al. 2010 [96]
129 59%;
18–63 yr;
AUS
ActiGraph GT1M Household
Day 1: 0.39 (P < 0.05)
Day 2: 0.49 (P < 0.05)
Leisure time
Day 1: 0.56 (P < 0.05)
Day 2: 0.47 (P < 0.05)
Transportation
Day 1: 0.50 (P < 0.05)
Day 2: 0.42 (P < 0.05)
Non-occupational sedentary time
Day 1: 0.57 (P < 0.05)
Day 2: 0.59 (P < 0.05)
  Poor
Updated PDR; Updated Previous Day Recall [97]
Matthews et al. 2013
88 46%;
41.3 (14.8) yr;
USA
ActivPal M 0.81 (0.05)
F 0.81 (0.04)
M MD 0.72 hrs
(LoA − 2.61; 4.05)
F MD 0.75 hrs
(LoA − 2.21; 3.71)
Good
  1. F: female, M: male, MD: mean difference, LoA: limits of agreement