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Table 1 Characteristics of older Japanese men and women by level of cooking skills (n = 19,378)

From: Cooking skills related to potential benefits for dietary behaviors and weight status among older Japanese men and women: a cross-sectional study from the JAGES

 Males (n = 9143)Females (n = 10,595)
TotalCooking skillTotalCooking skill
n%HighMiddleLowp-valuen%HighMiddle/Lowp-value
%%%%%
Cooking skill
 High475152.010000 996894.1100.00 
 Middle326935.801000 4984.7079.4 
 Low112312.300100 1291.2020.6 
Age (years)
 65–69285531.232.729.829.2< 0.001326930.931.718.0< 0.001
 70–74251027.526.929.125.1 289327.327.819.9 
 75–79205922.522.922.321.4 239322.622.819.8 
 ≥ 80171918.817.518.824.3 204019.317.842.3 
Education (years)
 Low (≤9)262628.728.228.132.70.002361434.133.346.4< 0.001
 Middle (10–12)346137.936.839.437.9 463843.844.237.0 
 High (≥13)298132.634.131.828.8 219820.721.114.7 
 Other/Missing750.80.90.80.6 1451.41.31.9 
Annual income (million yen)
 Low (< 2.00)348538.137.538.639.40.215411038.838.543.1< 0.001
 Middle (2.00–3.99)327935.935.936.633.3 304928.829.321.1 
 High (≥4.00)92410.110.69.310.6 8858.48.55.9 
 Missing145515.91615.416.7 255124.123.730.0 
Marital status
 Married778885.281.688.092.0< 0.001649761.362.444.7< 0.001
 Widowed6316.98.55.44.3 309729.228.343.9 
 Divorced3213.54.72.61.2 5134.84.85.1 
 Single2572.83.42.61.0 3072.92.84.1 
 Other/Missing1461.61.81.31.5 1811.71.72.2 
Under medical treatment
 Cancer (Yes)4504.95.14.55.70.533553.43.34.30.35
 Heart disease (Yes)121913.31313.614.20.847136.76.59.70.008
 Stroke (Yes)3854.23.54.56.5< 0.0011841.71.64.1< 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus (Yes)148416.216.615.317.40.4710109.59.510.40.69
 Hypertension (Yes)391342.842.143.543.80.66439141.441.048.20.002
 Hyperlipidemia (Yes)93310.210.310.49.40.92165815.615.813.20.19
Main way of preparing meals
 Cook by yourself128314.022.26.12.2< 0.001871482.284.054.9< 0.001
 Family member cook678574.265.182.588.5 9779.27.930.3 
 Buy cooked meals3073.42.84.32.8 1321.21.14.1 
 Use home-delivery services810.90.90.71.4 460.40.41.0 
 Other/Missing6877.58.96.35.1 7266.96.79.7 
Frequency of home cooking (n/week)
 ≥ 5 /week131014.323.35.81.2< 0.001876282.784.651.8< 0.001
 3–4 /week7578.312.54.61.1 9028.58.311.8 
 1–2 /week10021115.37.72.0 3663.53.28.1 
 < 1 /week115712.715.212.42.8 1991.91.57.2 
 Never491753.833.769.692.9 3663.52.321.1 
Frequency of eating outside the home (n/week)
 ≥ 5 /week2422.62.62.33.7< 0.0011031.00.91.40.001
 3–4 /week4625.15.05.44.2 2682.52.62.1 
 1–2 /week145015.916.915.612.3 126812.012.110.4 
 < 1 /week377341.341.341.939.2 429740.641.034.1 
 Never321635.234.234.740.7 465944.043.552.0 
Frequency of vegetable/fruit intake (n/day)
 ≥ 1 /day662572.573.370.674.40.008905285.486.075.9< 0.001
 < 1 /day (low frequency)251827.526.729.425.6 154314.614.024.1 
Body weight status (BMI, kg/m2)
 Underweight (< 18.5)4284.74.15.15.80.049889.39.211.80.08
 Normal (18.5–27.4)804488.088.188.087.4 883383.483.581.5 
 Obesity (≥ 27.5)6717.37.86.96.9 7747.37.36.7 
  1. BMI body mass index