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Table 4 β (95% CI) for weight, domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behaviours by change in parental status, Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study, Australia, 1985–2011

From: Partnering and parenting transitions in Australian men and women: associations with changes in weight, domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behaviours

  Men Women
n Model 1 Model 2 n Model 1 Model 2
β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Weight (kg)
 Stayed child-free 308 REF REF 309 REF REF
 Had first child 275 −1.0 (−2.1, 0.2) −1.3 (− 2.7, 0) 213 1.2 (0, 2.4)* 1.4 (0.1, 2.7)*
 Same number of children 229 REF REF 382 REF REF
 Had additional children 196 −0.7 (−2.1, 0.6) −0.8 (− 2.2, 0.6) 212 −1.0 (− 2.2, 0.1) −0.8 (− 1.9, 0.4)
BMI (kg/m2)
 Stayed child-free 308 REF REF 309 REF REF
 Had first child 275 −0.3 (−0.7, 0) − 0.4 (− 0.8, 0.1) 213 0.5 (0, 1.0)* 0.5 (0, 1.0)
 Same number of children 229 REF REF 382 REF REF
 Had additional children 196 −0.3 (−0.8, 0.1) −0.3 (− 0.8, 0.2) 212 −0.4 (− 0.9, 0) −0.3 (− 0.8, 0.1)
Total PA (mins/wk)
 Stayed child-free 145 REF REF 213 REF REF
 Had first child 126 − 115.4 (−222.8, −7.9)* −123.9 (− 248.8, 1.1) 145 87.5 (−6.9, 182.0) 36.2 (−68.6, 141.1)
 Same number of children 80 REF REF 245 REF REF
 Had additional children 81 119.7 (−20.1, 259.5) 126.1 (−15.1, 267.4) 186 50.4 (−35.5, 136.3) 56.9 (−31.7, 145.4)
Walking PA (mins/wk)
 Stayed child-free 145 REF REF 213 REF REF
 Had first child 126 −95.6 (−152.9, −38.3)*** −76.1 (− 142.6, −9.6)* 145 −85.3 (− 137.9, − 32.7)** −83.1 (− 141.8, −24.4)**
 Same number of children 80 REF REF 245 REF REF
 Had additional children 81 17.6 (−57.3, 92.5) 35.4 (−40.3, 111.1) 186 −48.9 (−96.4, −1.3)* −37.6 (−86.9, 11.7)
Moderate intensity PA (mins/wk)
 Stayed child-free 145 REF REF 213 REF REF
 Had first child 126 33.3 (−22.0, 88.7) 29.9 (−35.0, 94.8) 145 204.3 (142.1, 266.5)*** 175.0 (105.9, 244.1)***
 Same number of children 80 REF REF 245 REF REF
 Had additional children 81 71.4 (−0.2, 143.1) 80.0 (6.7, 153.3) 186 102.1 (45.4, 158.8)*** 107.2 (48.8, 165.6)***
Vigorous intensity PA (mins/wk)
 Stayed child-free 145 REF REF 213 REF REF
 Had first child 126 −48.0 (−94.0, −2.0)* −68.2 (− 121.4, −15.0)* 145 −42.3 (−69.1, −15.4)** −64.7 (− 94.4, −34.9)***
 Same number of children 80 REF REF 245 REF REF
 Had additional children 81 15.0 (−44.4, 74.3) 3.2 (−56.7, 63.0) 186 −13.4 (−37.7, 10.9) −23.8 (− 48.8, 1.2)
Occupational PA (mins/wk)
 Stayed child-free 145 REF REF 213 REF REF
 Had first child 126 −23.9 (− 102.1, 54.2) −1.7 (−92.4, 89.0) 145 −76.5 (− 127.3, − 25.7)** −105.7 (− 162.0, −49.4)***
 Same number of children 80 REF REF 245 REF REF
 Had additional children 81 72.5 (−28.9, 173.9) 87.5 (−14.9, 190.0) 186 −115.2 (− 161.2, −69.2)*** −115.6 (− 163.0, − 68.3)***
Transport PA (mins/wk)
 Stayed child-free 145 REF REF 213 REF REF
 Had first child 126 −38.9 (−72.6, −5.1)* −50.8 (−90.3, − 11.3)* 145 −14.7 (−49.0, 19.5) − 1.7 (− 39.8, 36.4)
 Same number of children 80 REF REF 245 REF REF
 Had additional children 81 −0.3 (−44.1, 43.5) −8.5 (−53.3, 36.2) 186 28.1 (−2.8, 59.0) 36.5 (4.4, 68.5)*
Domestic PA (mins/wk)
 Stayed child-free 145 REF REF 213 REF REF
 Had first child 126 33.7 (−10.9, 78.3) 25.7 (−26.5, 77.8) 145 234.9 (175.6, 294.2)*** 221.6 (155.6, 287.5)***
 Same number of children 80 REF REF 245 REF REF
 Had additional children 81 22.7 (−35.0, 80.4) 29.1 (−29.8, 87.9) 186 139.0 (85.1, 192.9)*** 147.4 (91.7, 203.0)***
Leisure time PA (LTPA, mins/wk)a
 Stayed child-free 145 REF REF 202 REF REF
 Had first child 126 −82.5 (− 125.0, −40.0)*** −89.7 (− 139.6, −39.9)*** 126 −64.7 (−102.0, −27.4)*** −84.7 (− 125.7, −43.6)***
 Same number of children 80 REF REF 236 REF REF
 Had additional children 81 3.6 (−51.4, 58.6) 3.7 (−52.6, 59.9) 145 −14.7 (−49.3, 19.9) −25.7 (−61.0, 9.6)
Sitting time (mins/day)b
 Stayed child-free 141 REF REF 213 REF REF
 Had first child 124 −16.2 (−54.2, 21.9) −34.7 (−79.1, 9.7) 145 −117.0 (− 145.5, −88.6)*** −103.4 (− 135.0, − 71.8)***
 Same number of children 78 REF REF 245 REF REF
 Had additional children 76 5.1 (−44.8, 55.0) −10.6 (−61.2, 39.9) 186 −42.8 (− 68.5, − 17.0)*** −39.3 (− 65.9, − 12.8)**
TV viewing time (mins/day)a
 Stayed child-free 145 REF REF 202 REF REF
 Had first child 126 −25.5 (−45.5, −5.4)* −26.4 (−49.9, − 2.8)* 126 −11.2 (− 25.9, 3.4) −8.0 (− 24.3, 8.2)
 Same number of children 80 REF REF 236 REF REF
 Had additional children 81 −1.7 (−27.6, 24.3) 0.6 (−26.0, 27.3) 145 −3.1 (− 16.7, 10.5) −1.7 (− 15.6, 12.3)
  1. BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; PA, physical activity
  2. Model 1: adjusted for weight, PA or sedentary behaviours at baseline
  3. Model 2: Model 1 + baseline age, sex, education, follow-up length and marital transitions
  4. aModel 2 + baseline diet quality in women
  5. bModel 2 + baseline diet quality in men
  6. β (95% CI) in bold means statistically significant difference compared to the reference group (had first child born vs. stayed child-free, had additional children vs. same number of children)
  7. *P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01, ***P ≤ 0.001