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Table 4 Associations with the whole study population (N = 4582) between the categorical and ordinal factors emerged in the decision tree model and time spent in sedenteriness (SED), light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)

From: Correlates of physical activity behavior in adults: a data mining approach

Categorical and ordinal factors in the decision tree model Missing values (n) SED (min/day) LPA (min/day) MVPA (min/day)
   B (95% CI) p B (95% CI) p B (95% CI) p
Urban-rural areas (rural area) 10 −20.9 (−40.3, −1.4) 0.35 21.7 (5.3, 38.2) 0.009** 0.2 (−4.7, 5.1) 0.921
Unable to work due to diseases/injuries (no problems/no diseases or I can carry out my work, but it causes me symptoms) 209 6 (−1, 13.1) 0.093 −1.4 (−7, 4.1) 0.618 4.4 (1.8, 7.1) 0.001**
Frequency of physical activity through gardening (2–3 times a month or more) 207 −20.6 (−27.3, −14) < 0.001** 14.4 (9.1, 19.6) < 0.001** 1.4 (−1, 3.9) 0.254
Occupational group (workers, farmers, service, sales and care staff) 261 −46.7 (−52, − 41.3) < 0.001** 41.1 (36.9, 45.4) < 0.001** 3.5 (1.4, 5.6) 0.001**
Difficulty of a 2-km run without breaks (without difficulty or with some difficulty) 211 −22.9 (− 28.7, − 17.1) < 0.001** 8.9 (4.3, 13.5) < 0.001** 14.2 (12.1, 16.4) < 0.001**
Basic education (less than 9 years of comprehensive school or comprehensive school) 206 −17.9 (− 23.6, − 12.2) < 0.001** 19.9 (15.5, 24.4) < 0.001** −2.1 (− 4.2, 0.1) 0.051
Sleeping problems (no problems or minor problems) 186 −20.6 (−30.3, − 10.9) < 0.001** 14.6 (6.9, 22.2) < 0.001** 5.3 (7.71, 8.9) 0.004**
Frequency of exercise through walking (2–3 times a month or more) 195 −16.9 (−24.7, −9.2) < 0.001** −3.89 (− 2.2, 10) .214 9.4 (6.5, 12.3) < 0.001**
Total amount of sleep (Sufficient or somewhat sufficient) 268 −10.1 (− 19.9, −0.4) 0.041* −0.6 (−8.3, 7.2) 0.88 2.5 (− 1.1, 6.2) 0.176
Difficulty of a 5-km run without breaks (without difficulty or with some difficulty) 201 −24.2 (− 29.8, − 18.7) < 0.001** 8.3 (3.8, 12.7) < 0.001** 16.1 (14, 18.1) < 0.001**
Enjoyment of daily activities (often or fairly often) 205 −10.4 (− 17.5, − 3.3) 0.004** 6.8 (1.2, 12.4) 0.017* 3.8 (1.1, 6.4) 0.005**
Signs and symptoms such as pain, ache, nausea, itching, etc. (no signs and symptoms or minor signs and symptoms) 195 −18.7 (−29.3, − 8) 0.001** 15 (6.5, 23.4) 0.001** 9.3 (5.3, 13.3) < 0.001**
Frequency of exercise through swimming (2–3 times a month or more) 212 −1.5 (−8.6, 5.5) 0.668 2.3 (−3.2, 8) 0.404 3.6 (0.9. 6.2) 0.008**
Considered retirement before the retirement age (have not or have sometimes) 213 3.5 (−5.1, 12.3) 0.424 2.3 (−4.6, 9.2) 0.510 3.4 (0.1, 6.7) 0.044*
  1. The regression coefficients (B) with (95% confidence interval) from generalized linear mixed model controlling for gender and age with urban-rural area as a random effect (except for urban-rural area itself that no random effect was considered). ⁎p < 0.05; **p < 0.01
  2. Reference categories: urban-rural areas: inner urban, outer urban, or peri-urban; unable to work due to diseases/injuries: sometimes reduce in work pace or changes to work is needed, often reduce in work pace or changes to work is needed, part time work on account of illness is needed, or totally unable to work; frequency of physical activity through gardening: once a month or less, or not at all; occupational group: directors and senior management, senior advisors and senior officials, advisors and officials, office workers and customer service representatives, and cannot say; difficulty of a 2-km run without breaks: with much difficulty or cannot at all; basic education: matriculation examination; sleeping problems: considerable problems and major problems, or severe insomnia; frequency of exercise through walking: once a month or less, or not at all; total amount of sleep: significantly insufficient or totally insufficient; difficulty of a 5-km run without breaks: with much difficulty or cannot at all; enjoyment of daily activities: now and then, hardly ever, or never; signs and symptoms: considerable signs and symptoms, strong signs and symptoms, or intolerable signs and symptoms; frequency of exercise through swimming: once a month or less, or not at all; considered retirement before the retirement age: have often, or have applied for a pension