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Table 3 Effects of nudging and pricing strategies on the outcome measures for the total samplea and stratified by pricing arms

From: The effects of nudging and pricing on healthy food purchasing behavior in a virtual supermarket setting: a randomized experiment

Conditions 25% increase arm (n = 128) 25% discount arm (n = 136) 25% increase and discount arm (n = 136) Total sample (n = 400)
B 95%CI B 95%CI B 95%CI B 95%CI
Percentage of healthy purchases (primary outcome)
 Control Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.  
 Nudging −0.5 −2.5; 1.5 0.2 −1.8; 2.2 1.8 −0.1; 3.7 0.5 −0.6; 1.6
 Pricing 0.0 −1.9; 2.0 0.5 −1.5; 2.5 0.7 −1.2; 2.6 0.4 −0.7; 1.6
 Price salience 1.4 −0.6; 3.4 1.9 −0.1; 3.9 4.5b 2.6; 6.4 2.6a 1.4; 3.7
 Price salience and nudging 3.0 1.1; 5.0 2.3 0.3; 4.3 4.0 2.0; 6.0 3.1 1.9; 4.3
Healthy purchases in grams (secondary outcome)
 Control Ref. Ref. Ref. NA
 Nudging − 416.3 − 1173.7; 341.2 − 286.4 − 1050.4; 477.5 68.4 − 741.1; 877.9 NA NA
 Pricing − 695.5 − 1451.2; 60.1 44.2 − 720.7; 809.0 −125.8 − 949.5; 697.8 NA NA
 Price salience −29.0 − 791.2; 733.2 1038.5b 274.6; 1802.3 1025.7b 180.8; 1870.5 NA NA
 Price salience and nudging −41.1 − 804.1; 721.9 440.6 − 320.3; 1201.5 1646.3 734.7; 2557.8 NA NA
Unhealthy purchases in grams (secondary outcome)
 Control Ref. Ref. Ref. NA
 Nudging − 534.6 − 1480.6; 411.5 − 756.4 − 1781.4; 271.9 − 907.4 − 1868.4; 53.6 NA NA
 Pricing − 1194.0 − 2134.6; − 253.3 −534.7 − 1569.2; 499.9 − 608.8 − 1576.6; 358.9 NA NA
 Price salience − 991.5 − 1935.6; −47.3 90.0 − 941.9; 1122.0 − 1680.8b − 2657.0; − 704.5 NA NA
 Price salience and nudging −1802.7 − 2742.3; − 863.2 − 993.0 − 2028.8; 32.9 − 885.5 − 1917.1; 146.0 NA NA
  1. Bold values are statistically significant
  2. Abbreviations: B Beta regression coefficient, CI Confidence interval, NA Not Applicable, Ref Reference group
  3. aOnly applicable for the primary outcome measure percentage of healthy purchases
  4. bPrice salience condition statistically significantly differs from pricing condition