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Table 1 Characteristics and results table for included studies (n = 62)

From: The relationship between the home environment and child adiposity: a systematic review

Author, year Study design Country Sample N (% male), age HE Constructs assessed HE measure (items, method of administration) Adiposity Outcome Key finding: Relationship with adiposity
MEDIA ENVIRONMENT ONLY (STUDIES N = 23)
 Adachi-Mejia et al. 2007 [16] Cross USA 2343 (50%), 9–12 y Physical - TV in bedroom. TVs in household 2 items; PR BMI z-scoresa TV in bedroom associated with OW (OR = 1.32).
 Anderson et al., 2010 [24] Cross USA 8550 (51%), 4 y Social - Caregiver limits around screen-time (< 2 h/day) 1 item; PR. BMI z-scoresa Limits on screen-viewing duration associated with lower odds of OB (OR = 0.85, p = 0.002).
 Atkin et al. 2013 [25] Prosp UK 2064, (T0) 9–10 y (45%); (T1) 10–11 y (41%) Physical - Media equipment (TV, computer) in bedroom and household (assessed T0, T1y) 2 items; PR BMI, weight status (NW/OW)d Children with OW more likely to have a TV in bedroom (T0 and T1) compared to children with NW. No effect of computer in bedroom. Higher total bedroom media score in children with OW compared to NW (T1y).
 Borghese et al. 2015 [26] Cross USA, Canada 1201 (43%), 10 y. Physical - TV in bedroom ISCOLE HNEQ; 1 item; PR. Body Fat % Canadian sample: TV in bedroom associated with higher BF% compared to no TV (boys: 21.8% vs 18.1%; girls: 24.9% vs 21.3%). American sample: TV in bedroom associated with higher BF% compared to no TV in boys (21.4% vs 18.9%) only.
 Cameron et al. 2013 [27] Cross 7 European Countriesb 7234 (48%), 10–12 y. Physical - TV in bedroom 1 item; PR. BMI & WCd TV in bedroom associated with higher BMI and waist circumference (in 4/7 European countries).
 Chahal et al. 2013 [28]. Cross Canada 3398 (50%), 10–11 y Physical - Media equipment in bedroom (TV, DVD player, computer, video game console, phone) Project EAT-III questionnaire, (5 items), PR and CR BMI and weight status (NW, OW, OB)d Electronic media devices (3+) in bedroom associated with greater odds of OW (OR = 2.57) or OB (OR = 2.23, p < .05) compared to no devices. Increased odds of OB for children with TV in bedroom (OR = 1.64), or computer in bedroom (OR = 1.47). Increased odds of OW for children with phone in bedroom (OR = 1.42).
 Chaput et al. 2014 [29] Cross Canada 502 (41%), 9–11 y Physical – Media equipment in bedroom (TV, computer, video games) ISCOLE HNEQ; 3 items; PR. BMI z-scores, BMI centile, BF%e 2–3 screens in bedroom associated with higher BF% compared to no screen. TV in bedroom associated with higher BF% compared to no TV. Computer in bedroom not associated with BF%.
 Dube et al. 2017 [30] Cross Canada 2334 (47%), 10–11 y. Physical - Media equipment in bedroom (TV, computer, video game, tablet, mobile phone) Project EAT-III Q; 5 items; PR. BMId ≥1 device in bedroom associated with increased odds of OB (OR = 1.82). Increased odds of OB for those with mobile phone (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.24, 1.98), TV (OR = 2.56), and/or computer (OR = 2.79) in bedroom.
 Farajian et al. 2014 [31] Cross Greece 4552 (49%), 10–12 y Physical - Media equipment in bedroom (TV, computer, video game) 2 items; CR BMId Having both TV and PC/video game console in bedroom associated with increased odds of OW/OB (OR = 1.41).
 Ferrari et al. 2015 [32] Cross Brazil 441 (49%),
9–11 y.
Physical - Media equipment in bedroom (TV, computer, video games) ISCOLE HNEQ;3 items; PR. BMIe Video games in bedroom associated with higher BMI (β = 0.94). 2–3 electronic devices in bedroom associated with higher BMI (β = 0.51). No association with BMI for TV and computer.
 Ferrari et al. 2017 [33] Cross Brazil 328 (52%), 9–11 y Physical - Media equipment in bedroom (TV) ISCOLE HNEQ; 3 items; PR. BMI, BF %, WCe No associations with BMI.
 Hardy et al. 2012 [34] Cross Australia 1141 (50%), 5–12 y Physical – TV in bedroom. Social - Caregiver rules around screen-time duration. ASAQ; 4 items; PR; validated. BMI, weight status (HW, OW/OBd Girls with OW more likely to have a TV in bedroom compared to girls with NW (OR = 2.00) (no association for boys). No association between caregiver media rules and weight status.
 Heilmann et al. 2017 [35] Prosp UK 12,556 (51%), 7–11 y. Physical - Media equipment in bedroom (TV) 1 item; PR BMI, body fat, weight statusd TV in bedroom (at age 7) associated with greater RR of having OW at age 11 (RR for boys = 1.21; RR for girls = 1.31) compared to no TV.
 Gomes et al. 2015 [36] Cross Portugal 580 (58.1%), 9–11 y. Physical - Media equipment in bedroom (TV, computer, video games) ISCOLE HNEQ; 3 items, PR. BMIe Media in bedroom associated with higher BMI (β = 0.26).
 Lane et al. 2014 [37] Cross Ireland 8568 (48.7%), 9 y Physical - Media equipment in bedroom (TV, computer, video games, phone) 4 items; PR. BMId TV in bedroom (OR = 1.38) and owning a mobile phone (OR = 1.41) associated with increased odds for OW or OB. No association for computer and games console in bedroom.
 Li et al. 2014 [38] Cross China 497 (51.7%), 8–10 y Physical - Media equipment in home (games console, computer, DVD) 3 items; PR. BMI SDSb No media equipment in home associated with lower risk of OB compared to 1–2 devices, specifically DVD players (OR = 0.68) and games consoles (OR = 0.60). No association for computer.
 Lehto et al. 2011 [39] Cross Finland 604 (48.3%), 9–11 y. Physical - Media equipment in bedroom (TV, computer, video games) 2 items; CR. BMI, WC, WHtRk TV in bedroom associated with higher WC (β = 2.30). Computer/video games in bedroom associated with higher WC (β = 1.33)
 Sijtsma et al. 2015 [40] Cross Netherlands 1670 (53%), 3–4 y Physical – TV in bedroom. Number of TVs in home. LRBQ; 2 items; PR. BMI z-scorei TV in bedroom associated with higher BMI. No association between number of televisions in home on and BMI.
 Tiberio et al. 2014 [41] Prosp USA 213 (45%), 5–9 y Social - Caregiver monitoring and limit setting around media use 3 itemsn; PR BMI z-scoresa Less maternal monitoring associated with higher BMI z-scores at age 7 (β = −.23, p < 0.01) and steeper increases in BMI z-scores from ages 5 to 9 y (β = −.058, p < 0.01).
 Rutherford et al. 2015 [42] Prosp Australia 4983 (51.4%) 4–9 y Physical – TV in bedroom and computer in home. Social - Caregiver rules around TV viewing duration 3 items; PR BMId No associations with BMI and weight status.
 Lin et al. 2019 [43] Cross Taiwan 1031 (50%), 7–12 y Media: Social – Caregiver modelling and limit setting around screen-viewing 6 items; PR. BMIq No association with weight status.
 Paduano et al. 2020 [44] Cross Italy 588 (53.2%), 6–7 y Media: Physical – TV in bedroom 1 item; PR. BMI z-scored TV in bedroom associated with higher odds of OW/OB (OR = 1.1)
 Park et al. 2019 [45] Cross USA 129 (48.1%) 2-5y Media: Physical - TV in bedroom FNPAp; 20 items; PR; validated. BMI z-scores, weight statusa No association with weight status.
FOOD ENVIRONMENT ONLY (n = 13)
 Cassimos et al. 2011 [46] Cross Greece 335 (54.03%), 9–12 y. Physical - Availability of and access to sweets and juice in the home. 21 items; PR. BMId Availability of sweets associated with increased odds of OW/OB (OR = 0.357).
 Chen et al. 2018 [47] Cross China 222 (51.5%), 3–6 y Physical - Energy dense foods at home FEAHQ; 29 items; PR, validated. BMIe Availability of energy dense foods associated with higher BMI (β coefficient = 0.30, p < .01)
 Couch et al. 2014 [13] Cross USA 699 (50.2%), 6–11 y Physical – Availability of energy dense foods and nutrient-dense foods
Social – Caregiver modelling positive eating behaviours. Caregiver rules around child eating.
EMS (7 items); FEAHQ (3 items); AWQ (12 items); PR; validated BMI z-scoresa Encouragement/modelling of ‘healthy eating’ negatively associated with BMI z- scores (β coefficient = −0.17). No association between food availability and BMI z-scores. No association between caregiver rules around child eating and BMI z-scores.
 Downs et al. 2009 [48] Cross Canada 225 (NP), 9–12 y Physical - Food and beverages in the home. FAQ; NP; CR interview. BMId No associations with BMI.
 Humenikova et al. 2008 [49] Cross Czech and USA US: 45 (33%)
Czech: 97 (43%), 10–11 y
Physical - ‘healthful’ foods (e.g. fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy) in home Shelf Inventory; 80 items; PR, validated. BMI percentilesd America: No association with BMI z-score. Czech: Greater availability of ‘healthful’ foods associated with lower BMI z-scores (r = −.203, p < .05).
 Gable et al. 2000 [50] Cross USA 65 (43%), 6–10 y Physical aspects - Food and beverages in the home. FAQ; NP; PR. BMIm No associations with BMI.
 Lopez-Barron et al. 2015 [51] Cross Mexico 684 (45.5%), 10–11 y Physical - Food and beverages in the home. Food inventory; 13 items; CR. BMI z-scores, Height z-scores, WCb OW/OB associated with increased odds of availability of fruits and vegetables (OR = 1.10, p = 0.035). OW/OB associated with lower availability of energy-dense foods at home (OR 0.56, p < .001)
 MacFarlane et al. 2009 [52] Prosp Australia T0 = 161 (50%) 5–6 y T1 = 132 (50%) 10–12 Physical - Energy-dense foods at home
Social - Caregiver policies around energy-dense snacks and fast foods.
Family food environment; 7 items; PR. BMI z-scoresa No associations with BMI z-scores.
 Terry and Beck, 1985 [53] Cross USA 16 (56%) 8–12 y Physical - Foods in the home (foods traffic lighted based on caloric value; number of red, yellow and green foods visible in home) In-home observation of food environment × 2. BMIl Observation 1: No difference between OB and NW in availability of energy-dense foods. Observation 2: No difference between OB and NW in availability of energy-dense foods.
 Palfreyman et al. 2014 [54] Cross UK 484 (51%), 1–8 y Social - Caregiver modelling of healthy eating behaviour PARM; 18 items; PR. BMI z-scoresj No association with BMI.
 Van Lippevelde et al. 2013 [55] Cross 7 European Countries15 6374 (47%), 10–12-y. Physical – Breakfast type foods (milk, cereal, breads) in home 1 item; PR. BMI z-scoreh No association with BM.
 Vaughn et al. 2017 [56] Cross USA 129 (51%), 3–12 y. Physical - Food and drinks in the home.
Social - Caregiver modelling of eating and limit setting around unhealthy food intake
CAFPP; 124 items; PR; validated BMI centiles and z-scoresk No associations between availability with BMI. No association between caregiver modelling or limit setting around unhealthy eating with BMI.
 Quah et al. 2018 [57] Cross Singapore 511 (52.1%), 5y Social – Caregiver modelling and support for healthy eating. CFPQ; 8 items; PR; validated. BMI z-scoreb No association with BMI z-score.
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ENVIRONMENT ONLY (n = 5)
 Chivers et al., 2012 [58] Prosp Australia 2868 (NP%), 1–10 y. Physical – PA equipment at home. Social - Caregiver support of PA by visiting park or playground with child. NP; PR. BMId Cross-sectional: No associations with weight status.
Prospective: No associations with weight status.
 Sijtsma et al. 2015 [59] Cross Netherlands 1554 (50%), 3–4 y Social - Caregiver modelling of PA behaviour SQUASH; 11 items; PR. BMI z-score and WCi No association between caregiver modelling of PA and BMI or waist circumference. Caregiver modelling of PA commuting (e.g. walking) associated with lower BMI Z-score (r = −0.062).
 Liszewska et al. 2018 [60] Prosp Poland 879 (48%), 6–11 y Social - Caregiver modelling and support of PA ARPQ (7 items); Modified CFPQ for PA (31 items); PR; validated BMI z-scoresb Caregiver modelling and support of PA associated with lower BMI z-scores (r = −.070, p < .05).
 Schalkwijk et al. 2018 [61] Prosp UK 6467 (51%), 3–7 y Physical - Access to garden at home 1 item; PR. BMId No access to garden associated with increased odds for OW/OB (OR = 1.35).
 Umstattd Meyer et al. 2013 [62] Cross US/ Mexico 94 (42%), 6–11 y Physical - PA equipment at home 16 items; interview PR. BMI percentiles No associations with BMI.
STUDIES ASSESSING TWO DOMAINS OF THE HOME ENVIRONMENT (n = 16)
 Hales et al. 2013 [63] Cross USA 129 (51%), 3–12 y Media: Physical – Media equipment in home (TV, computer, video games)
PA: Physical - Availability and access to PA equipment
HomeSTEAD; 1015 items; PR; validated. BMI percentilesa Media: No associations with BMI.
PA: Greater PA equipment associated with lower BMI (‘adult exercise equipment’; r = − 0.26, and ‘child fixed play equipment’; r = − 0.25 and ‘child portable play equipment’; − 0.23).
 Jones, et al. 2009 [64] Cross Australia 140 (51%), 2–6 y Media: Physical- TV in bedroom. Social aspects - Caregiver rules around TV
PA: Social - Caregiver rules around PA
Parenting Styles Q; 9 items; PR BMId Media: No associations with weight status.
PA: No associations with weight status.
 Sleddens et al. 2017 [15] Prosp Netherlands 1694 (51.2%), 5–7 y Media: Social – Caregiver limit setting around screen-based activities
PA: Social – Caregiver support of child PA
ARPQ; 7 items; PR; validated. BMI z-scorei Media: Caregiver policy ‘restriction of sedentary behaviour’ associated with greater increases in BMI z-scores from ages 5 to 7.
PA: No association with BMI.
 Taylor et al. 2011 [65] Cross Australia 175 (44%), 7–12 y Media: Social– Caregiver modelling and limit setting around of media use.
PA: Social - caregiver modelling of PA
Parent Physical Activity Practices Q; 11 items; PR. BMI z-scored Media: No association with BMI.
PA: No association with BMI.
 Mathialagan et al. 2018 [66] Cross Malaysia 802 (NP%), 10–12 y Media: Social - Caregiver limit setting around electronic media equipment use.
PA: Social - Caregiver PA levels
42 items; CR; validated. BMIb PA: No association with weight status.
Media: Caregiver limits on media use associated with lower child weight status.
 Rosenberg et al. 2010 [67] Cross USA 116 (52.2%), 5–11 y Media: Physical – Media equipment in bedroom and home (TV, computer, games console)
PA: Physical - PA equipment at home
Home PA equipment scale (21 items); HEES (14 items); PR. BMI z-scorea Media: Electronics in bedroom associated with higher BMI z-score (β coefficient = .17, p < .05). TV in bedroom not associated with BMI.
PA: No association with BMI.
 Mihrshahi et al. 2017 [68] Cross Australia 3884 (49%), 6–10 y Media: Physical - TV in bedroom. Social - Caregiver rules around screen-time
Food: Physical – Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) at home. Social - Caregiver policies around sweet snacks
5 items; PR. BMI, WHtR - abdominal obesityk Media: TV in bedroom associated with higher odds of OW/OB (OR = 1.74) and abdominal OB (OR = 1.96). No limits on screen-time associated with higher odds of abdominal OB (OR = 1.66).
Food: Availability of SSB associated with higher risk of OW/OB (OR = 1.51) and higher abdominal OB (OR = 1.50) in unadjusted models. No association with adiposity in fully adjusted models.
 Keihner et al. 2009 [69] Cross USA 299 (47.8%), 9–11 y Media: Physical - TV in bedroom. Social caregiver limit setting around screen-time
Food: Social - Caregiver modelling of energy-dense foods
Food and activity diary, FMTS; 4 items; CR and PR. BMI z-scores, BMI %tilesa Media: No associations with BMI.
Food: No associations with BMI.
 Huynh, et al. 2011 [70] Prosp Vietnam 670 (49%), 4–5 y Media: Physical - Media equipment in home (TV, computer, video games, portable devices)
Food: Physical - Food and beverages in the home.
HOME-SF; validated. BMI, skinfold thicknessg Media: No associations with changes in BMI or skinfold thickness over 1 year.
Food: Availability of ‘healthy foods’ negatively associated BMI (girls only) and skinfold thickness (boys and girls) over 1 year.
 Serene et al. 2011 [71] Cross Kuala Lumpur 1430 (41.5%), 9–12 y Food: Physical – Foods in home. Social - Caregiver encouragement of healthy eating.
PA: Social - Caregiver support of PA
Q developed based on CFQ and DASH. BMIe Food: No associations with BMI.
PA: No associations with BMI
 Serrano et al. 2014 [72] Cross Puerto Rico 114 (42.1%), 12 y Food: Social - Caregiver encouragement of healthy eating
PA: Social - caregiver encouragement of PA
Team COOL Survey; 76 items; PR; validated. BMIa Food: No association with weight status.
PA: No association with weight status.
 Moreno et al. 2011 [73] Cross USA 233 (47%), 5–12 y Food: Social - Caregiver modelling of healthy eating
PA: Social - Caregiver modelling of PA
FHBS; 27 items; PR; validated. BMI z-scorea Composite score: No association between ‘Parent behaviour’ (caregiver modelling of healthy eating and PA) and child BMI z-scores.
 Sirikulchayanonta et al. 2011 [74] Cross Thailand 280 children (50%), 8–12 y. Food: Physical - Foods available in home
PA: Physical – Access to PA equipment/garden
11 items; CR.
Composite score of ‘home environment’
BMI age- and sex- specificf Composite score: Higher risk ‘home environment’ associated with increased odds of OB (OR = 2.8).
 Torres et al. 2014 [75] Cross Puerto Rico 114 (43%), 12 y Food: Physical - Foods in home.
PA: Physical - PA equipment at home
Home Physical Environment; 10 items; CR BMI percentilesa Food: Availability of ‘unhealthy’ foods associated with higher BMI (r = − 0.25). No association between availability of healthy foods with BMI.
PA: Access to PA equipment associated with higher BMI (r = 0.25).
 Crawford et al. 2012 [76] Cross Australia 491 (47%), 5–12 y Media: Physical - TV in bedroom and home. Social - Caregiver limit setting around electronic media
PA: Physical - PA equipment at home. Social - Caregiver support of PA
Home environment questionnaire; 46 items; PR; validated. BMI z-scoresa Media: TV in bedroom associated with higher BMI z-scores (B coefficient = 0.24). No association between caregiver limit setting and BMI.
PA: No associations with BM
 Vaughn et al. 2019 [77] Cross USA 129 (51%), 3–12 y Media: Social – Caregiver modelling and limit setting around electronic media use.
PA: Social - Caregiver modelling and support of PA
HomeSTEAD; 196 items; PR; validated. BMI percentilea Media: No association with BMI percentile. Caregiver modelling of video games and computer associated with higher BMI percentile (r = 0.15).
PA: Caregiver encouragement of PA associated with lower BMI percentile (r = − 0.25). Lack of caregiver support for PA associated with higher BMI percentile (r = .17). No association for modelling of PA.
STUDIES MEASURING ALL THREE DOMAINS OF HOME ENVIRONMENT (n = 5)
 Rodenburg, G., et al. 2013 [78] Cross Netherlands 1480 (50.5%), 8–12 y Food: Physical - Food and beverages in the home. Social - Caregiver modelling and support for healthy eating
Media: Physical – Media equipment (TV, computer) in bedroom. Social – Caregiver modelling of TV viewing. Caregiver rules around screen viewing.
PA: Physical - PA equipment at home. Social - Caregiver modelling of PA
Home Environment Survey (HES); 84 items; PR; validated.
Five composite scores created.
BMI z-scorei Composite score: ‘Diet- and activity-related positive modelling’ (caregiver modelling of healthy eating, modelling of sedentary behaviour, caregiver snack intake and access to PA equipment) was positively associated with child BMI z-scores (B coefficient = 0.08, p < 0.05).
No association between ‘High visibility and accessibility to screens and unhealthy food’ and BMI z-scores.
 Ihmels et al. 2009 [79] Cross USA 854 (51.3%), 6–7 y Food: Social - Caregiver modelling of healthy eating behaviour
Media: Physical - TV in bedroom. Social - Caregiver monitoring of TV
PA: Social - Caregiver modelling and support of PA
FNPA; 21 items; PR; validated. BMI, BMI percentilesa Food: Caregiver modelling of healthy eating associated with lower BMI (r = −.132).
PA: Caregiver modelling of PA associated with lower BMI (r = −.086, p < .01).
Media: TV in bedroom associated with higher BMI (r = −.156, p < .001). No association between caregiver monitoring and child BMI.
 Kim et al. 2014 [80] Cross South Korea 241 (47.7%), 2–5 y Food: Social - Caregiver modelling of healthy eating
Media: Social - Caregiver modelling of media use and limit setting
PA: Social - Caregiver modelling and support for PA
ACTS; 7 items; PA and healthy eating barriers; 9 items; PR; validated. BMIk Food: Caregiver modelling of ‘healthy eating’ associated with higher odds of OB (OR = 1.11).
PA: No associations with weight status.
Media: Caregiver modelling of media use associated with higher odds for OB (OR = 1.01). Caregiver limit setting of media use associated with lower BMI (− 0.12, p < 0.05).
 Gubbels et al. 2011 [81] Prosp Netherlands 2026 (51.2%), 5–7 y Food: Social - Caregiver support for healthy eating
Media: Social - Caregiver limit setting around electronic media use
PA: Social - Caregiver support and encouragement of child PA
Modified CFQ for food (9 items); ARPQ (9 items); PR; validated. BMI z-scoree Food: Caregiver support/encouragement of ‘healthy eating’ at age 5 associated with lower BMI z-scores at age 7 (B coefficient = 0.07).
PA: No association with BMI.
Media: Caregiver limits of media use at age 5 associated with higher increases in BMI from age 5 to 7 (B coefficient = 0.06).
 Schrempft et al. 2015 [82] Cross UK 1096 (49%), 4 y Food: Physical – Food and beverages in the home.
Social - Caregiver modelling of eating
Media: Physical – Media equipment in home and bedroom. Social– Caregiver modelling and limit setting.
PA: Physical – PA equipment at home. Social - Caregiver modelling/support of PA
HEI; 32 constructs; CATI PR; validated. BMI z-scorec Food: No association with BMI.
Media: No association with BMI.
PA: No association with BMI.
Overall obesogenic risk: No association with BM.
  1. Footnotes:
  2. NB: The measure used examines non-HE related aspects. Only some items from the named measure are relevant to the HE domains examined in this review. Therefore, only the number of items from the measure that were utilised are listed.
  3. aCentre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2000) Growth Reference Charts;
  4. bWorld Health Organisation (WHO) 2007 Child Growth Reference values
  5. cUK Growth Reference 1990
  6. dInternational Obesity Task Force (IOTF);
  7. eWHO Growth reference (2006)
  8. fINMU Thai Growth program as weight for height (WFH)
  9. gAsian Population Criteria
  10. hWHO Anthro-Plus (2009)
  11. iDutch population in 1997
  12. jChild Growth Foundation 1996
  13. kNot provided
  14. lNational Centre for Health Statistics
  15. mNHANES I
  16. nCapaldi, DM.; Pears, KC.; Wilson, J.; Bruckner, L. Parent Interview. Unpublished instrument. Oregon Social Learning Center; Eugene: 1998
  17. o7 European countries are Belgium, Greece, Hungary, Holland, Norway, Spain, Slovenia
  18. pThe FNPA was used to create a composite score of the home “family obesogenic environment” which was associated with lower BMI z-score (β = − 0.069 (0.032), p < 0.05). However this score incorporated several aspects of family life outside the scope of this review. Therefore only the findings relevant to the current review are presented here
  19. qHealth Promotion Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare (2013)
  20. Abbreviations: N cohort size, SES Socioeconomic status, HE Home environment, OW Overweight, OB Obese, BMI Body mass index, WHtR Waist to height ratio, PA Physical activity, NS Not stated, Q Questionnaire, WC Weight circumference, SSBs Sugar sweetened beverages, OR Odds ratio, TV Television, HOME-SF Home observation for measurement of the environment short form, CATI Computer-assisted telephone interviewing, ENERGY EuropeaN Energy balance research to prevent excessive weight gain among youth project, SPEEDY Sport, physical activity and eating behaviour: environmental determinants in young people, ISCOLE International study of childhood obesity, lifestyle and the environment, HNEQ Home & Neighbourhood Environment Questionnaire, GECKO Groningen expert center for kids with obesity, HomeSTEAD Home self-administered tool for environmental assessment of activity & diet family food practices survey, DASH Determinants of adolescents’ social well-being and health, COOL Controlling overweight and obesity for life, SQUASH Short questionnaire to assess health enhancing physical activity, NIK Neighbourhood impact on kids; project EAT-III (eating and activity in teens and young adults)-III questionnaire, FEAHQ Family eating and activity habits questionnaire, PARM Parental modelling of eating behaviour scale, ACTS Activity support scale for multiple groups, HEI Home environment interview, EMS Encouragement and modelling scale, ARPQ Activity related parenting questionnaire, CAFPP Comprehensive assessment of food parenting practices, HEES Home electronic equipment scale, LRBQ Lifestyle-related behaviour questionnaire, ASAQ Adolescent sedentary activity questionnaire, FAQ Food availability questionnaire, FHBS Family health behaviour scale, AWQ Active where parent-child questionnaire, ARPQ Activity related parenting questionnaire, FNPA Family Nutrition & Physical Activity screening tool, FMTS Food modelling telephone survey